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Dedication We dedicate this research report to Prophet Muhammad S.A.W.W,the greatest teacher of Mankind, who set the basis of knowledge and education in this world. Acknowledgement First and foremost, we present our deepest gratitude to our supervisor,Dr. Rabia A.Qureshi, Assistant Professor, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore,whose guidance, encouragement andsupport from the initial to the final level enabled us to develop an understanding of the subject and about research writing. In addition to that, we would like to express our gratitude to our affectionate parentsfor their day and night prayers whichhas always raised our moral and struggle, learn and accomplish our goals. They provided us with all the support and a peacefulsurrounding so that wecan concentrate on our studies and achieve high. We would also like to pay homage to all other teachers and our fellows who helped us through this subject and semester. In the last, we would like to thank Uber and Careem for their services and Bahria town officials for their cooperation. Abstract Housing is one of the basic necessities, that is increasing with the growing population. The demand of affordable housing has resulted in the development of private housing schemes across the country, particularly along the fertile land of Lahore, Faisalabad and Multan divisions. As in the case of Lahore, City District Government (CDG) and LDA have declared certain private housing schemes, a complete failure because of informal approval or unavailability of basic facilities. In addition to provide a space for living, a housing scheme must fulfil the basic facilities for a healthy life style, which include the provision of public spaces, green belts, pathways, proper traffic patterns, and recreational facilities like malls, entertainment centers and public parks etc. So, we, as a student of architecture, decided to conduct a research on planning patterns of housing societies, by taking Bahria Town Lahore as a sample. It is a qualitative research, and the basic objective of the research is to testify the effectiveness of planning rules being opted by Bharia Town designers and the quality ofliving standard being provided to the residents, by taking Christopher Alexander’s book “The Pattern Language” as a reference source. Primarily, data is collected through, thorough observation, site surveys and reviews by the professionals. Research was conducted by taking one sector as a sample of Bahria town Lahore housing scheme, which in our case was the study of sector B. The research is based upon critical analysis of different plans of scheme with the selected patterns and the data was collected in the form of photographs, plans, diagrams. Data collected then was compiled in the form of diagrams tables, showing the comparative study of plans and the selected patterns. The research also includes finding out the reasons behind the success or failure of a specific facility provided in the housing scheme that contradicts the pattern. In conclusion, our research indicated that, most of the patterns, explained in the patterns language, necessary for a better housing community, were not being followed in Bahria town. Table of contents Abstract…………………………………………………………………………… 3 List of figures…………………………………. List of tables……………………………………. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background…………………………………………………………….……… 8 1.2 Objective of study……………………………………………………………… 8 1.3 Significance of study………………………………….….… 9 1.4 Hypothesis……………………………………. 9 1.5 Research Methodology………………………………………………………… 9 1.5.1 Data collection………………………………………………………….. 9 1.5.2 Data analysis………………………………………………………………. 9 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Introduction………………………. 10 2.2 Bahria town……………………. 10 2.2.1 Bahria town Lahore………………… 11 2.2.2 Bahria Town Sector B…………………………….. 11 2.3 The pattern language………………………………………….….…… 13 2.3.1 Description of patterns………………………………….. 13 2.3.2 Explanation of patterns………………………….. 13 1) Small public squares ………………………………………….….…… 13 2)High places ……………………………………………………………… 14 3) Public outdoors………………………………….….… 15 4) T junctions…………………………….…. …..…. 15 5) green streets………………………………………….….…… 16 6)Network of paths and cars……………………………………………… 17 7) Main gateways………………………………….….… 18 8)Accessible green…………………………….….…..…. 19 9)Connected play ………………………………….….… 20 10)Grave sites…………………………….….…..…. 21 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction………………………………………………… 26 3.2 Research tool…………………………………………. 26 3.2.1 Observation…………………………….. 26 3.2.2 Site surveys…………………… 26 3.2.3 Photography……………………. 26 3.2.4 Internet access…………………………………… 27 3.3 Data analysis……………………………. 27 3.4 Data processing…………………………………………… 27 CHAPTER 4: DATA COLLECTION 4.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………….. 28 4.2 Explanation of patterns…………………………………………………… 29 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 5.1 Conclusion………………………………………………………………… 30 5.2 Discussion………………………………………………………………… 30 Tables……………………………………………………………………….. 31 REFERENCE List of figures • Figure 1: Bahria Town logo………………………………………… • Figure 2: Bahria town Rawalpindi…………………………………………. • Figure 3: Bahria Town Lahore………………………………………. • Figure 4:Small public squares ………………………………………….….…… • Figure 5: High places ……………………………………………………………… • Figure 6: Public outdoors………………………………….….… • Figure 7: T junctions…………………………….….…..…. • Figure 8: Green streets………………………………………….….…… • Figure9: Network of paths cars……………………………………………………………… • Figure 10: Main gateways………………………………….….… • Figure 11: Accessible green……………………………………………..…..…. • Figure 12: Connected play ………………………………….….… • Figure 13: Grave sites…………………………….….………………….…. • Figure 14: Observation…………………………… • Figure 15: Interviews…………………………….….………………………………. • Figure 16: Photo Camera………………………………….….… • Figure 17: Video camera…………………………….….……………………. • Figure 18: Internet symbol……………………………………… • Figure 19: Commercial center, Bahria town ………………………………………….….…… • Figure 20: Commercial center diagram………………………………………………. • Figure 21: Safari view point……………………………………………………………… • Figure 22: High place diagram…………………………………………………………… • Figure 23: T junctions diagram…………………………….….…………………. • Figure 24: Gateway diagram………………………………………………………… • Figure 25: Egyptian enclave entrance……………………………………………………… • Figure 26: Green spaces diagram……………………………………………………… • Figure 27: Bahria international hospital……………………………………….. • Figure 28: Safari villas…………………………………………………………… • Figure 29: Mosques location diagram…………………………………………….. • Figure 30: Trafalgar square, Bahria town……………………………………………….. List of tables • Table 1.1 Satisfaction level of patterns CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background: Before introducing the research perspectives, we must like to define what a real estate company is and what is the concept of housing societies in Pakistan. “Real estate can be defined as land plus anything permanently fixed to it, including buildings, sheds and other items attached to structure. Real estate can be grouped into four broad categories based on its use: residential, retail, commercial and industrial. Examples of real estate include: un-developed land, houses, condominiums, townhomes, office buildings, retail store buildings and factories” (1) According to this definition, the housing sectors which are commonly termed as private housing schemes in Pakistan are basically the real estates. And a real estate company is the one which is empowering the whole housing scheme. With the increase in growing population the demand of affordable housing has increased, resulting in the development of a large number of private housing schemes being run by these real estate companies across the country, particularly along the fertile land of Lahore, Faisalabad and Multan divisions. (1) The concept of housing schemes in Pakistan is not new. It came into market as early as 90’s when the first housing developed scheme; Bahria town was introduced by Developer Malik Riaz in Rawalpindi. With the success of which further companies began to develop and a large network of real estate companies can be seen nowadays. But with the increasing development in housing societies, the chaos also began to arise. As in the case of Lahore, City District Government (CDG) and LDA have already declared certain private housing schemes, a complete failure because of informal approval or unavailability of basic facilities. (Daily times: 3rd March 2016)(3) By considering the housing as one of major problems, and the chaos behind these housing societies, we opted to research on studying the effectiveness and testing the quality of life, being provided in different housing schemes by taking Bahira Town, one of the oldest housing schemes as a reference. 1.2 Objective of the study: The main objective of the study is to find out the effectiveness of planning of Bahria town Lahore, by taking sector B of Bahria town as a model example, as all of the housing schemes claim to provide state of art quality lifestyle. And the secondary objective would be to study the role, different housing societies are playing in developing a standard life style for people. 1.3 Significance of study: The research study signifies the problems in planning of housing schemes, and also what should the accepted qualities of a housing scheme. The research would be helpful for future town planners, urban designers and architects to improvise the quality of lifestyle that should be provided while designing and planning a housing scheme/ colony. Following are the characteristics of our research; • This research is directed towards the solution of the problems in housing societies • This research emphasizes the principles that will be helpful in predicting future occurrences in housing societies • This research is based upon observable experience or logical evidences. • Our research dependsupon accurate observation and description. • This research gathers new data from primary or first-hand sources or using existing data for a new purpose. • Research will involve the answers for questions of un-solved problems. 1.4 Hypothesis The designing and urban planning of Bahria Town would be satisfying the Chistopher Alexander’s standard patterns, to the maximum extent. (As it is the oldest and most reliable of housing schemes, that claims to provide state of art quality lifestyle) 1.5 Research Methodology 1.5.1 Data collection Considering all the factors associated with our study, our research instrument tools are: Observations (the primary research tool), Site surveys and data collection through media (Photography, videography and logical internet). 1.5.2 Data analysis Data will be analyzed in the form of plans, diagrams and tables, showing the comparativeness of plans with patterns of Christopher Alexander. CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF LITERATURE The relevant information we collected regarding Bahria town, in order to conduct the research as best as possible. It includes the detailed information and plans of Bharia Town along with the thorough study of Christopher Alexander’s Pattern Language, which is the reference source for testing the validity of planning scheme. 2.1 Bahria town Bahria Town is a privately owned real-estate development company which owns, develops and manages properties across Pakistan. It is the largest private real estate company in Asia. Founded in late-1990s, it established its first gated community in southern Rawalpindi on the Grand Trunk Road, which by mid-2000s had expanded into nine phases divided into two compounds. Its second gated community opened in Lahore, which is influenced by Greco-Roman culture, and is built in Southern Lahore. (5) Picture source: bahriatownlahore.com Picture source: Minahil estate “The projects of Bahria town house upper middle and high income people. Bahria town are home to private schools including those operate by the company, private hospitals, hotels and commercial avenues” (The Daily times) Bhria town housing societies are self-sufficient in many aspects. These housing societies have private security, restricted accesses, and they also have their private grid stations. Bahria has been featured by international news agencies. ‘GlobalPost’ claimed that in 2013, Bahria houses some 100,000 people in Rawalpindi alone. Newsweek calls it as Pakistan’s Gateway to Paradise. On October 6, 2011, Los Angeles Times referred Bahria as ‘functioning state within a non-functioning one’. Regardless of all that things, Bahria Town has been subject to controversies many times and it is famous among the people as a symbol of inequality in the society and sometimesblamed for illegal cutting down of forests and illegal alliance with military. 2.1.1 Bahria town Lahore Bahria Town is the largest housing project of Pakistan. Bahria Town Lahore developments bring back the spirit of the land of the greens with a modern touch. The master design revives the communal setting alongside the famous Lahore Canal. According to Bahria town officials “Bahria Town Lahore developments form the horizon of the rich history of the land of Punjab. It forms the juncture of a rich cultural & architectural history to a bright and progressive future. Vast plains abundant with natural green settings, host the most progressive residential lifestyle yet to be matched by any other development. Farm houses, traditional bungalow type large land formats, economy housing and luxury lifestyle are all harmonized to carve the most versatile and diverse community. Health facilities, entertainment, commercial and business opportunities establish Bahria Town Lahore as the happening place already. With the futuristic business district of Lahore planned and under development here; businesses and especially new businesses are exploring their future with us” (2) In Bahria Town there is no Load Shedding, very low crime rate, good maintenance. the negative point about Bahria is its location and its poor road access to main Lahore. its located 10 KM behind ThokarNiazBaig. Mostly there are middle class people living in Bahria Town. (Naveed Shamim blog, pakistan33) Picture source: bahriatownlahore.com 2.1.2 Bahria Town sector B: Sector B of Bahria Town Lahore is located next to executive lodges and Safari Villas, and is fully equipped with all the features and facilities. According to Bahria officials, it is “Placed in the heart of Bahria Town Lahore, Sector B benefits from its strategic location. All modern facilities and amenities in Bahria Town are conveniently located at a walking distance from Sector B. Dotted with green parks and playgrounds, this is the perfect escape to solace. A fully contained complete infrastructure with underground provision of cables and utilities makes it the first of its kind in Pakistan “(2) Master Plan of Bahria Town Sector B Source: The Real Estate Lahore 2.2 The pattern language In order to testify and analyze the overall planning pattern being followed in Bahria town, we took Christopher Alexander’s Pattern language as a standard/ reference source. The book first introduced the concept of people designing buildings for themselves, and guaranteeing the comfort and functionality of the buildings they designed, because the elements of the language are “patterns”, elements which are a collective memory of things which work in our surroundings.(4) 2.2.1 Description of patterns: The language begins with patterns that define towns and communities. These patterns can never be designed or built in one fell swoop—but patient piecemeal growth, designed in such a way that every individual act is always helping to create or generate these larger global patterns, will, slowly and surely, over the years, make a community that has these global patterns in it. (6) The next part of the language gives shape to groups of buildings, and individual buildings, on the land, in three dimensions. These are the patterns which can be “designed” or “built”—the patterns which define the individual buildings and the space between buildings; where we are dealing for the first time with Patterns that are under the control of individuals or small groups of individuals, who are able to build the patterns all at once. The next, and last part of the Pattern language tells how to make a buildable building directly from this rough scheme of spaces, and tells us how to build it in detail. 2.2.3 Explanation of patterns 1)Small public squares A town needs public squares; they are the largest, most public rooms, that the town has. But when they are too large, they look and feel deserted.(6) (Christopher Alexander,1977, The pattern language) It is natural that every public street will swell out at those important nodes where most of the activities take place.But for some reasons,there is always a temptation of large public squares nowadays. Although they look good in drawings, but mostly lost their worth, when they are built in the form of large plazas. Two smaller public squares between the structures along different lanes are far better than accommodating the same number of people in a single larger area. It also creates a small visual opening, functioning as a transition space as well as maintaining the hierarchy and connection between the buildings, providing a space of interaction for people after specific intervals. When the size of this square exceeds 70 feet diameter it rather looks unpleasant and the users find it uncomfortable too. Therefore, according to Alexander, you should make a public square much smaller than you would, at your first imagination; usually no more than 45 to 60 feet across, never more than 70feet across. This applies only to its width in the short direction. In the longerdirection, it can certainly be longer. (6) (Christopher Alexander,1977, The pattern language) Sketch source: The pattern language 2)High places The instinct to climb up to some high place, from which you can look down and survey your world, seems to be a fundamental human instinct (6) The high places in a town or in a residential society have two functions, first one is it gives the people a place to climb up to have a view and the second is they are the land mark or the symbol of that specific city, society or a specific area. High places are also important, because they give people a chance to take a break from the routine life and climb up and look down and have an eye catching and overall captivating view of the whole area. But according to Christopher Alexander, these places would have no meaning and enjoyment if they have a passenger car or any means of transport to take them up. If people climb towards their destination, they would have more enjoyment, more interaction and more exposure and they would be more active as well. But if people are using a car or any other means of transport, then there would be no meaning of that specific high place, it will only be considered as a hi rise structure to have a bird eye view of what their houses look like when viewed from the top. So, high places would be meaningful not only for the mental, but as well as physical development of residents of an area. Build occasional high place as landmarks throughout the city. They can be a natural part of the topography, or towers, or part of the roofs of the highest local building but, in any case, they should include a physical climb. (6) (Christopher Alexander,1977, The pattern language) Sketch source: The pattern language 3) Public outdoor room There are very few spots along the streets of modern towns and neighborhoods where people can hang out, comfortably, for hours at a time (6) People want a space where they can spend their time. A teenager want a spot where he/she can hang out or have fun with friends, old people want a space where they can relax and mentally satisfied. Small children want sand lots where they can play. Because of the diverse nature of people, a space is required which fulfill all of these activities. Modern housing projects especially suffer from the lack of such kind of spaces. In early neighborhood and work community, make a piece of the common land into an outdoor room- a party enclosed place, with some roof, column, without walls, perhaps with a trellis; place it beside an important path within view of many homes and workshops (6) 4) T junctions This pattern is used to define the layout for the local road when major roads are in position to parallel road and help to generate looped local roads(6) Traffic accidents are far more frequent where two roads cross than at T junction.According to this pattern of Christopher, in case of two two- ways road cross, there are 16 collision points where as in case of T junction these chances are reduce into just three points. (John Calendar, Times saver standards, Fourth Edition, New York, 1966, p. 1230) Sketch source: The pattern language T junction is saver are compared to a four-way junction when the internal angle is 90 degrees. In case of any angle other than 90 degree, that is more than 90 or less than 90, it is difficult for driver to see around the corner and the chances of accident increases. (Swedish National Board of Urban Planning,” Principles for Urban Planning with Respect to Road Safety,” The Scaft Guidelines 1968, Publication No. 5 Stockholm, Sweden, p II) 5)Green streets This pattern is helpful in defining the character of local roads. It also defines the surface of roads and parking lots. There is too much hot hard asphalt in the world. A local road, which only give access to buildings, need a few stones for the wheel of the cars; nothing more. Most of it can still be green (6) Concrete and asphalt have terrible effect on the local environment and destroy micro climate they have no benefit with the sun light that fall on them. They are unpleasant for walk, have no place to sit, no room to play have chances of injury in case of fall down and the natural drainage of the ground is completely divested and it is not suitable for animals and plants survival. These roads are only suitable for high speed roads. They are unnecessary for the roads or streets adjacent to the housing area. Because near housing area a few cars are moving with low speed to reduce chances of accidernts.so the need is to have a grassy surface that is adapted to the primary uses of the common land between the building ,with just enough hard paving to cope with the few cars that do go on it.so the best solution for the local roads is a field of grass having paving stone set into it on the hot summer day the temperature of the air over the grass is 10 to 14 degree lower than the temperature of asphalt road. In such grassy streets, the cars can be arranged on the green street for the parking of guests and residents. The green street works on the principle that the street need not provide for more parking than its need. Parking for the resident will be either in the end of the green streets or in the driveway of the buildings On local roads, closed to through traffic, plants grass all over the road and set occasional paving stones into the grass to form a surface for the wheels of those cars that need access to the street. Make no distinction between the street and the side walk, where houses open off the street, put in more paving stones or gravel to let car turn onto their own land(6) Sketch source: The pattern language 6)Network of paths and cars Cars are dangerous to pedestrians;yet activities occur just where cars and pedestrian meet To separate the pedestrian tracks and cars are common practice to avoid accidents but the fact is car and pedestrian need each other and that justify the fact that urban life occurs at the point where these two system meet. To resolve this contradiction, it is necessary to find an arrangement in which pedestrian and the roads are separate but they meet with each other at different point. In general, it requires two orthogonal network one for the pedestrian and the other for road each network connected at frequent interval at right angle. This kind of separation is required in that case when traffic is in medium or high densities in case of low densities separation is not required Except where traffic densities are very high or very low, layout pedestrian paths at right angle to roads, not along them,so that the paths at right angle to roads, not along them, so that the path gradually begins to form a second network, distinct from the road system, and orthogonal to it. This can be done quite gradually-even if you put in one at a time, but always put them in the middle the “block.” So that they run across the roads(6) Sketch source: The pattern language But in the case, when paths are along with the major road then they should be 18 inches higher than the major roads. 7) Main gateways Any part of a town –large or small-which is to be identified by its inhabitants as a prescient of some kind, will be reinforced,helped in its distantness, marked, and made more vivid, if the path which enter it are marked by gateways where they cross the boundary(6) Different parts of a town have boundary around them which identify their activity in people mind. And specify the area of housing style in that particular area. But these boundaries are physically identified through any mark at the end of the town or scheme or in most of the cases it is marked by the main gate .it has different forms and all form play a vital role in the environment but at the same time they have same function they mark the point where a path crosses a boundary Mark every boundary in the city which has important human meaning –the boundary of a building cluster a neighborhood, a precinct –by great gateways where the major entering cross the boundary(6) The door should be solid and visible from all the points weather it is from a road or from a hole punching through a building. Sketch source: The pattern language 8)Accessible green People need green open places to go to; when they are close they use them. But if the greens are more than three minutes away, the distance overwhelms the need. People of the age wants two types of outdoor spaces first one is a pleasant, usable private balcony and second is a quiet public park within walking distance. Parks are necessary for the nourishment and freshness of people but in most of cases people change their mind of going towards the park because these parks are more than 3 minutes from their residence so the best solution to their problem is that, rather than providing a huge park which is away from some house, we should provide small size parks that are located within the threeminutes’ walk from the work place and residence. Build one open public green within three minutes’ walk –about 750 feet of every house and work place. This means the greens need to be uniformly scattered at 1500 feet intervals, throughout the city. Make the greens at least 150 feet across, and at least 60,000 square feet in area * 9)Connected play If the children don’t play enough with other children during the first five years of life, there is a great chance that they will have some kind of mental illness later in their lives * Children needs to interact with one another for social interaction and other fun activities. and in this process, they get exposure and if they do not interact with others in the early ages then most of the cases they suffer from psychosis and neurosis after some years.so it is necessary to have a play area in each house that should connect with the play space of other householder so that their children remain safe and at the same time they can keep an eye on them Lay out common land. paths, garden and bridges so that groups of at least 64 households are connected by a swath land that does not cross the traffic, establish this land as the connected play space for the children in these household * Sketch source: The pattern language 10)Grave sites No people who turn their backs on death can be alive. The presence of the dead among the living will be a daily fact in any society which encourages its people to live(6) There are huge cemeteries outsides the cities or at that places where no one ever visits. To hide the fact of death from children and over self we do not prefer the presence of grave yard near to our houses because we have a feeling of fear. At the same time, we also don’t want to accept the reality of death. We should break down the scale of modern cemeteries and rather than providing a huge graveyard outside the city or town we should provide scattered places for burial to reinstate the connection between burial grounds and local communities’ .in this way a common person can choose a place for himself in park, common land or in his land. Never build massive cemeteries. Instead, allocate pieces of land throughout the community as grave sites-corners of parks, sections of paths, gardens, beside gateways where memorials to people who have died can be ritually places with inscription and mementos which celebrate their life. Give each grave site an edge, a path, and a quiet corner where people can sit .by custom, this is hallowed ground (6) 11)Raised walkways: When fast moving cars and pedestrian meet in the cities,the cars overwhelm the pedestrians. The car is king and people are made to feel small(6) Source: The pattern language Any pedestrian path along a road carrying fast-moving cars should be about 18 inches above the road, with a low wall or railing, or balustrade along the edge, to mark the edge. Put the raised walk on only one side of the road —make it as wide as possible. 12)Bikes Paths and Racks Bikes are cheap, healthy, and good for the environment; but the environment is not designed for them. Bikes on roads are threatened by cars; bikes on paths threaten pedestrians (6) Build a system of paths designated as bike paths, with the following properties: the bike paths are marked clearly with a special, easily recognizable surface (for example, a red asphalt surface). As far as possible they run along local roads, or major pedestrian paths. Where a bike path runs along a local road, its surface may be level with the road —if possible, on the sunny side; where a bike path runs along a pedestrian path, keep it separate from that path and a few inches below it. Bring the system of bike paths to within 1oo feet of every building, and give every building a bike rack near its main entrance. 13) Children in the city If children are not able to explore the whole of the adult world round about them, they cannot become adults. But modern cities are so dangerous that children cannot be al- lowed to explore them(6) As part of the network of bike paths, develop one system of paths that is extra safe—entirely separate from automobiles, with lights and bridges at the crossings, with homes and shops along it, so that there are always many eyes on the path. Let this path go through every neighborhood, so that children can get onto it without crossing a main road. And run the path all through the city, down pedestrian streets, through workshops, assembly plants, warehouses, interchanges, print houses, bakeries, all the interesting “invisible” life of a town—so that the children can roam freely on their bikes and trikes 14) Carnival Just as an individual person dreams fantastic happenings to release the inner forces which cannot be encompassed by ordinary events, so too a city needs its dreams Sketch source: pattern language Set aside some part of the town as a carnival—mad side- shows, tournaments, acts, displays, competitions, dancing, music, street theater, clowns, transvestites, freak events, which allow people to reveal their madness; weave a wide pedestrian street through this area; run booths along the street, narrow alleys; at one end an outdoor theater; per- haps connect the theater stage directly to the carnival street, so the two spill into and feed one another 15) Still Water: To be in touch with water, we must above all be able to swim; and to swim daily, the pools and ponds and holes for swimming must be so widely scattered through the city, that each person can reach one within minutes. In every neighborhood, provide some still water—a pond, a pool—for swimming. Keep the pool open to the public at all times, but make the entrance to the pool only from the shallow side of the pool, and make the pool deepen gradually, starting from one or two inches deep. 16) Local Sports The human body does not wear out with use. On the contrary, it wears down when it is not used Scatter places for team and individual sports through every work community and neighborhood: tennis, squash table tennis, swimming, billiards, basketball, dancing, gymnasium . . . and make the action visible to passers-by, as an invitation to participate. 17) Street Café: The street cafe provides a unique setting, special to cities: a place where people can sit lazily, legitimately, be on view, and watch the world go by. Encourage local cafes to spring up in each neighborhood. Make them intimate places, with several rooms, open to a busy path, where people can sit with coffee or a drink and watch the world go by. Build the front of the cafe so that a set of tables stretch out of the cafe, right into the street. 18) Bus Stop: Bus stops must be easy to recognize, and pleasant, with enough activity around them to make people comfortable and safe. Build bus stops so that they form tiny centers of public life. Build them as part of the gateways into neighborhoods, work communities, parts of town. Locate them so that they work together with several other activities, at least a newsstand, maps, outdoor shelter, seats, and in various combinations, corner groceries, smoke shops, coffee bar, tree places, special road crossings, public bathrooms, squares. 29) Birth places It seems unlikely that any process which treats child birth as a sickness could possibly be a healthy part of a healthy society. Build local birth places where women go to have their children: places that are specially tailored to childbirth as a natural, eventful moment—where the entire family comes for prenatal care and education; where fathers and mid wives help during the hours of labor and birth. 20) Holy site The rites that accompany birth, puberty, marriage, and death are fundamental to human growth. Unless these rites are given the emotional weight, they need, it is impossible for a man or woman to pass thoroughly from one stage of life to another. We believe that every community, regardless of its particular faith, regardless of whether it even has a faith in any organized sense, needs some place where this feeling of slow, progressive access through gates to a holy center may be experienced. When such a place exists in a community, even if it is not associated with any particular religion, we believe that the feeling of holiness, in some form or other, will gradually come to life there among the people who share in the experience. In each community and neighborhood, identify somesacred site as consecrated ground, and form a series ofnested precincts, each marked by a gateway, each oneprogressively more private, and more sacred than the last,the innermost a final sanctum that can only be reached bypassing through all of the outer ones. At each threshold between precincts build a gate main gateways (53); at each gate, a place to pause with a new view towardthe next most inner placezen view (134); and at the innermost sanctum, something very quiet and able to inspire—perhaps a view, or no more than a simple tree, or pool. CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction Research:Research is an intellectual activity. We are using this research methodology for bringing light to the new knowledge, for correcting the present mistakes, removing existing misconceptions and adding new learning to the existing bundle of knowledge. Our research is a systematic, formal and intensive process for carrying out the perfect results. There are many ways of doing research. They are intuition, revelation, and authority, logical manipulation of basic assumptions, informed guesses, observation, and reasoning by analogy. Including all these strategies in our research instrument tool our tools are: Observations Surveys Media • Photography • Videography • Logical internet All the above sources off data collection and their usefulness is explained as follows: 3.2 Observations: We are taking observation, as a method of collecting research data that will involve observing site, user behavior and systematically recording the results of those observations. Observations will be guided by the research questions. Therefore, the observations will be ready made and planned. That will be completely different from casual everyday observations of behavior which are often casual, selective, and inaccurate. Our main observation point will be the observation on the basis of comparison of current selection with the accurate, authentic and logical approved worldwide existing literature, second it will be on the basis of user observations taking ourselves as a user. Note:We will use observation where it will be not possible to collect data using interviews or questionnaires. 3.3 Survey: Surveys provide us valid, usable results After observations or interviews we will prefer conducting site surveys for perfect visual experience and observation for example: • rather than asking experts or public that how they look the society as good or bad, or are they feeling comfortable with all these architectural facilities or not or facing problems, we will prefer to go to site and analyze all the features by ourselves with live experience, analyzing the features as a user. We will compare the authentic patterns with our live visualizations. The goal of our survey will be to collect objective, unbiased information. 3.4 Media: Media as a source of our data collection would be in the form of: 3.4.1 Photography: Our use of photographs in the research will build up an authentic proof of the surveys and observations to be noted for its realism, as the routine gets in multiple perceptions And interpretations but the captures will consider the moment of one. We consider photographs inherently ambiguous, Their specifiable meanings emergent in the viewing process Building upon the evidence that viewers tend to look through Photographs, i have made use of the ways in which photographs are The site collective captures to make it visual site proof And information concerning community life. We are not going to get it personal so it will be much easier for us to let it done without interfering in any other’s personal life 3.4.2 Videography: Videography is another research tool that we will use as a motion capture to give a site perspective in a live meaning for those observers which are unable to be there, to visit those pattern poofs to conclude my observations in the way that we adopted .to give them a user adopted vision, to be on site to let them see what we want to show them in a motion manner, the faults and benefits in a live way, the best authentic proof that can never be neglected. 3.4.3 Internet access: In the modern era,internet is considered as a best authentic informative research tool. We will use this access to get the informative data that is not accessible in any other way like the background or history of the schemes.Plus,Authentic stands for approved,logical reasoning from that tool. 3.5 Data analysis Data will be analyzed in the form of charts, diagrams and tables, showing the comparativeness of plans with patterns of Christopher Alexander. CHAPTER 4: DATA COLLECTION 4.1 Overview Data was collected in the form of field surveys, with observation as the primary tool and photography and marking the exact position on the plan and writing as the other source. Surveys were reportedly done on May 1st, 2017 from 3 Pm to 6 pm and May 5th, 2017 from 2 Pm to 4 pm respectively. The patterns of Alexander were cross checked with the planning of Bahria town, Sector B. The detail of patterns observed all along the survey and their correlation with the patterns are as follows: 4.2 Explanation of patterns 1-Small public squares According to Christopher Alexander, a public square should be small and centrally located, usually no more than 45*60 feet wide, with no restriction of the other dimension. Also, it shouldn’t be in the form of a large plaza or structure. It is good to have two small public squares having a central linkage,creating visual opening, as a transition space rather than having a big large one. But comparatively, in whole sector of Bahria town, there are only three public squares, which are termed as commercial centers in the local language, and they all are of larger sizes and decentralized.All the three commercial centers are located in the northern wing of the sector, across the main boulevard. The first is termed as the main commercial center, contains several retail shops, a street café, and brand shops. It has no central linkage, directly connected to row of houses along three sides, and is almost 200’ wide from both sides. The second public square is the one having the main shopping center, The Bahria Mall, a mosque with a zoo and park along the side of road. The third one is located along the back side of Takbeer block, just a Boulevard road away from the main commercial center and consists of a cinema, some retail and brand shops. The dimensions are comparatively satisfactory and location is also centralized. So, it can be concluded that there is no specific concept of Small public squares, large commercial centers are located with Shopping mall on one hand and small retail shops on the other. The size of markets being comparatively larger with no concept of 45’ or plus diameters along. Moreover, they are not located centrally as marked from master plan, located on either corner of the sector. Safari Mall Main commercial center Pictures credit: Amara Mukhtar Commercial centers highlighted 2-High places: According to Christopher Alexander, there should be a high place as a landmark, to have a view of overall area and it shouldn’t have a passenger car or any mean to climb up because it completely destroys the meaning of a high place. In Bahriatown,for sector B, safari view point is constructedfulfilling the conditions of Christopher Alexander for high places, i.e. having an appropriate height, giving the serene view of the area, with stairs to climb up and also serves as a place for interaction and view. Whereas the only flaw that can be observed is the location of View point, which could have been made much better. LOCATION OF HIGH PLACE Picture source: bahriatownlahore.com 3-T junctions According toChristopher, a planner should prefer a Tjunction, for the roads rather than a cross junction because it decreases the chances of accidents, as in case of t junction there are only three points of collision while in case of cross junction, these points are increased up to 16, and the junction having angle other than 90 degrees, increase the chances of accidents. In sector B, most of the junctions, fulfil the required condition. At one or two places, cross junctions are redefined to make T junctions. However, only the area at the top and extreme right of safari villas, from number 250 to 550 has cross junctions along the housing lanes, as mentioned in diagram. So, we can conclude that, 80% of the junctions of sector, fulfil the condition. Cross junction at Safari Villas T junctions and cross junctions highlighted 4-Green streets: According to pattern language, local road (any road other than major roads) should be a green street, that is, there should be grass all over the road and occasional paving stones into the grass to form a surface for the cars and there should be no distinction between the street and side walk. and put more paving and gravel so that the car can turn onto their own land. Also, no road other than major road should be made up or concrete and asphalt because they have negative effect on the environment and increases the temperature of that area. In case ofsector B,all roads including the local roads are much too wide than standard, and made up of concrete and asphalt. And there is no concept of a green street in form of local roads, also causing heat up. Asphalt as major material of private streets 5-Network of path and cars: According to Alexander, a pedestrian path should be at a right angle to the roads and they meet with each other at different point.Pedestrian walking along the road are not recommended by Alexander, as they increase the chances of accidents. This type of arrangement (already discussed in pattern review, chapter 2) is use for high or medium densities traffic but in case of low density traffic separate pedestrianroutes are not required. In sector B, all the pedestrian tracks are located along the roads, side by side. No evidence of centralized walkways or pedestrian routes were observed. 6-Main gateways: According to Alexander, any part of a town, weather it is small or large, there should exist a marked space or a major entrance to identify the boundary of that particular area, but it should be physical, in most of the cases it is usually a gate way. Bahriasector B, fulfil this pattern because it has a main gateway at the entrance, also the sub gate ways and the marked entrances/land marks along the start of any specific region i.e. the Egyptian block, the safari villas, the commercial center, as shown in the pictures and diagrams. Egyptian block gatewaySafari villas entrance Picturescredit: Amara Mukhtar Gateways highlighted 7-Accessible green: According to the pattern language, people prefer to go to green space to refresh themselves, and these spaces should be at 3-minute walking distance from their residence (about 750 feet horizontal distance) from their house or work station, if it is much far away, people would prefer to sit in their lounge or having the view from their balcony rather than going outside and enjoying the beauty of green. Bahria town sector B,partially fulfil this condition and the detail of this pattern in Bahria are as, all the green areas located in the north of sector B, along the Ghouri block, Shaheen block, Takbeer block, Ali block, Usman block and meadows villas fulfil the conditions of centralization and walking distance. Whereas, green area in Overseas block and Umar block, no sufficient green areas are provided according to the requirement. And in Safari villas, the green is not located centrally and the best accessible place and also areway too smaller than required. Image source: zameen.com 8-Connected play: According to pattern language, there should be a connected play area in between 64 houses for the children, so that they can have a combined place to play with their neighbor,increase their exposure, to get confidence through interaction. But the condition required is, it should be in between 64 houses. Away from the roads for children safety and their parents can keep an eye on them but in case of Bahri, it’s not the case, asthere is no grouping of houses in such a way that they have green space or play area in between them. In some most of the case, there are houses, then a local road, then a small sized green space and then again there is one more local road and fast moving cars move with full speed on these roads. So is absolutely not an area which is much safe for children and it is difficult for parents to keep their eyes on their children. 9-Grave sites: According to the Christopher Alexander, in a society there should be provided several grave sites in scattered form, rather than a big large grave sector, so that people can visit the graves easily and hence there would be a desire in the people to live rather than giving one or more large scale graveyards only in one corner far away from the houses where no one visits But in case of Bahria Sector B there is only a large-scale graveyard at one corner, along the south, at Gul bahar block, having a remarkable distance from houses, and making it difficult for the people living along the north to access that area. 10-Raised walkways: According to the Christopher Alexander, in a residential area there should be the provision of raised walkways for the pedestrians. The pedestrian path should be kept high from the roads level so that they can feel safe to walk while the traffic is also moving along them But in Bahria Town Sector B the pedestrian paths are made a slight above from the road level no more than 6 “At some places this level reduces to only 3″ from the road level which is not appropriate for the pedestrians who want to walk safely. Beside the height of the pedestrian path the width is also not appropriate which is according to the Alexander should be 12′ but in Bahria’s case, it is no more than 6′ to 8′. 11-Bikes paths and racks: According to the Christopher Alexander, in residential areas, the paths of bikes should be separate from that of cars with a clear special and recognizable surface and they may be level with the path of cars but a few inches below the pedestrian paths and there should be proper bike racks in front of every building. In case of Bahria town, there exist no separate paths of Bikes in terms of special materials. The bike riders use the same path as the car driver use slightly below the pedestrian path. Moreover, the bikes racks at the front of each building are also not present. 12-Children in the city: According to the Christopher Alexander, there should be an extra safe path for the children of the society entirely separate from the path of automobiles with lights and bridges at the crossing. But in case of Bahria Town, there is no evidence of safe route for the children where they can roam freely on their bikes and tricycles. 13-Carnival: According to Alexander, there should be some outdoor space available such as mad side, carnival,tournaments,acts displays etc. in the town so that individuals enjoy at that places and interact with each other after hectic day. But in case of Bahria town, sector B,there is no place readily available, to set up a carnival, or a fair, or a reality show to allow people to reveal their madness. 14-Birth places: According to Christopher Alexander,there should be a local birth place in a town where women go to have their children, the space should be like an area where the entire family comes for parental care. In Bahria town, there is a general hospital namely ” Bahria international hospital” having a maternity home in it. With its exception, there is no local birthplace or any other hospital in that area, whole of the sector, so it partially satisfies the conditions implied by Alexander. Pictures credit: Amara Mukhtar 15. Holy sites According to Alexander, there should be holy sites located, irrespective of the religion, with three different phases of sacredness, primary, secondary and tertiary. In sector B, there are located two different mosques namely, Masjid e Qurtaba in Takbeer block, near commercial center and Masjid e Alfalah in Umar block. The two of the mosques satisfies the pattern with provision and ease to residents and visitors. LOCATION OF MOSQUES 16. Street café According to Alexander, we should build local cafes in each neighborhood, with several rooms, open to a busy path, where people can sit with coffee or a drink and watch the world go by. Build the front of the cafe so that a set of tables stretch out of the cafe, right into the street. In commercial sector of sector B, there exists street cafes, but are not readily accessible to most of the population and also not large enough to provide all the foodies the view of outside. 17. Still water According to Alexander, we should provide in every neighborhood, some still water, a pond, a pool, open to the public at all times, can be in the form of fountains, natural or artificial lakes etc. In sector B, water bodies are provided, but were off due to some conditions, moreover most of the water bodies were in the form of fountains or small lakes, in 70% of green spaces. 19. Local sports According to Alexander, a planner should provide scatter places for team and individual sports through every work community and neighborhood, for example, tennis, squash table tennis, swimming, billiards, basketball, dancing, gymnasium and make the action visible to passers-by, as an invitation to participate. In sector B, there was no open area specifically denoted for indoor or outdoor sports. The green spaces or parks provided were converted to outdoor play areas by children and teenagers by their own. Moreover, no indoor sports activity, gymnasium, billiard, specifically provided, except in case of shopping mall. 20.Bus stop According to Alexander, bus stops should be like that so that they form tiny centers of public life. It can be a part of the gateways into neighborhoods, parts of town, so that they can also work together with several other activities, at least a newsstand, maps, outdoor shelter, seats, and in various combinations, corner groceries, smoke shops, coffee bar, tree places, special road crossings, public bathrooms, squares. In Bahria town, bus stops are allotted along equal intervals with specified distances, but not constructed along any of the activities mentioned above. They are usually a shade where people can just prefer to stand to hide themselves from scorching weather, otherwise usually seen outside the stop, roaming along and waiting. CHAPTER NO 5: CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION 5.1 Conclusion The aim of our study was to understand and analyze the overall urban planning of sector B of Bharia town, by taking patterns (planning concepts) of Christopher Alexander as a reference. The conclusion derived after continuous observation and site surveys was that majority of patterns selected from the book were not being followed in Bahriatown sector B. Out of 20 patterns discussed, 9 patterns are partially satisfied, 8 are un satisfied, while only the 3 of patterns discussed by Christopher Alexander are completely satisfying in the Bahria town, sector B. 5.2 Discussion The main objective of the study was to find out the effectiveness of planning patterns of housing schemes, particularly Bahria town, by taking Bahria town Lahore as a model example, as all of the housing schemes claim to provide state of art quality lifestyle. After undertaking the research, and concluding that only 3 out of the selected 20 patterns (that needs to be followed in a housing community to provide quality life style) it derived us to the point that the common perception regarding the popularity and effectiveness of these private based housing schemes, particularly Bahria town, is not true. The research also derives us to the point that, the facilities like shopping malls, vast green spaces, elaborated gateways and clear wide roads inside a private scheme are carefully observed in Bahria town, and collectively in almost all of the housing schemes. The point here rises that either the provision of such recreational facilities benefits the user or not, or either they are just a source of publicity, attracting the residents and the tourists to their communities. A standard life style, that a housing society claim to provide to its residents, doesn’t necessarily depends on providing a theme park, 200’ wide roads or such vast green areas. But it actually and majorly depends on the quality of urban planning, and the priority of the designer to go for either the materialistic approach or considering the real sense of place, a resident need, as explained by Christopher Alexander and many other architects and town planners, and which is also considered as the major rule and spirit behind the designing and planning. As the modern world is progressing, the world of architecture and planning is also moving towards the new trends. The new trend, which is being discussed and started to follow in architectural corners, is again the revival of concept of Spirit of place. So the modern architecture and planning, rather than focusing on stylistic facades and irregular shapes, is slowly and steadily moving towards the again to the revival of concepts of the emotion, function and meaning attached to any place, either it’s a building, structure or an open area. So, we and all other young designers and planners need to concentrate much more on the spirit and meaning behind designing any kind of place, rather than the aesthetical value in designing any kind of building, place or a gateway housing community. The following table shows which of the patterns are satisfied / unsatisfied or partially satisfied in Bahria town (sector B). No. Name of pattern Satisfied /partially satisfied/ un satisfied 1. Small public squares Unsatisfied 2. Public outdoor rooms Partially satisfied 3. T junctions Partially satisfied 4. Green streets Unsatisfied 5. Network of path & cars Unsatisfied 6. Main gateways Satisfied 7. Accessible green Partially satisfied 8. Connected play Unsatisfied 9. Grave sites Partially satisfied 10. High place Satisfied 11. Raised walkways Unsatisfied 12. Bike paths and routes Unsatisfied 13. Children in city Unsatisfied 14. Carnival Unsatisfied 15. Still water Partially satisfied 16. Local sports Unsatisfied 17. Bus stop Partially satisfied 18. Holy sites Satisfied 19. Birth place Partially satisfied 20. Street café Partially satisfied Table 5.1 As discussed in the table, out of 20 patterns discussed, 9 patterns are partially satisfied, 8 are un satisfied, while only the 3 of patterns discussed by Christopher Alexander are completely satisfying in the Bahria town, sector B, as observed and surveyed by us. This also derives us to the point that the common perception regarding the popularity and effectiveness of these private based housing schemes is not true. The following graph indicates the ratio of patterns being satisfied in Bahria town housing scheme. Table 5.2 REFERENCES Web sources • (1) http://www.businessdictionary.com • (2) http://www.bahriatown.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=95&Itemid=86 • (3) http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_14-4-2005_pg3_4 • (4) https://web.archive.org/web/20110607014616/ • (5) http://www.pakistan33.com/2016/08/bahria-town-or-dha-which-is-better.html Book source • (6) Christopher Alexander,1997, The pattern language, Oxford University press,https://www.patternlanguage.com
I dedicate this thesis to my parents & friends
In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful & his Prophet Muhammad are the source of knowledge for humanity. I offer my humble words of thanks to Allah who blessed us the ability that we give our little contribution to the already existing ocean of knowledge.
I would like to acknowledge the immense influence of my supervisors; Architect Shahid Jamal, Architect Shama anbrine and
Architect Anis ahmad Sidiqqi for the development of this thesis.
My parents & siblings also played very important role in support of my education.
Also want to show my appreciation to all my friends and colleagues for discussing aspects of this subject and for all their ideas and insights. In these acknowledgements I would like to specially thank those who have helped me bring this thesis to fruition.
Punjab is the land of five rivers and rich heritage. Each part of Punjab holds its own cultural identity which must be kept alive in true sense purity. Likewise area of South Punjab has richest of the culture about which this thesis aims to provide a platform to educate the masses about our rich heritage and traditions so that it can be passed generations over generations.
The other problem this thesis aims to cover; besides educating masses of our heritage is to improve the social status of artisans and help them deal directly to the clients without the presence of a middle man which serves as a parasite to the artisan. The promotion and preservation of local crafts and economic incentives for the artisans are needed if any change is to be seen in the lives of the artisans and promotion of the heritage. Saraiki Virsa would not only provide facilities to the artisans and upgrade their social status like other Punjab but it will become a tourist attraction as it shows the beauty of a particular state of Pakistan.
Holding of functions, local sports, exhibitions and conferences will help promoting culture, arts and crafts which help upholding our identity among other nations. Even giving a good know how of a certain area’s heritage among the country will help bonding the people of other areas even closer by sharing knowledge and customs they cherish. Nations vanish when they lose their identity. So I’ve tried my level best to save the beauty of this southern part of Punjab.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction of project 1
1.1. Title: 1
1.2. Overview: 1
1.3. Introduction: 1
1.4. Feasibility: 2
1.4.1 Need of the project: 2
1.4.2 Background of the project: 2
1.5. Aims & objectives: 2
1.6. Target group: 3
1.7. Client: 3
1.8. Scope of the project: 3
1.9. Methodology: 4
1.10 Data collection: 4
2 Literature review 5
2.1. Saraiki culture 5
2.2. Culture: 5
2.3. Description of culture: 6
2.4. Component of culture: 6
2.5. Cultural heritage: 7
2.6. Saraiki culture at country level: 7
2.7. Saraiki culture at province level: 8
2.8. Saraiki’s culture: 9
2.8.1 Characteristic of saraiki culture: 9
2.8.2 Ancient culture: 9
2.8.3 Mixed & rich culture: 9
2.8.4 Rich architecture & literature: 10
2.9. Saraiki culture components: 10
2.9.1 Saraiki folklore: 10
2.9.2 Dresses: 10
2.9.3 Food: 10
2.9.4 Festivals: 10
2.9.5 Art & craft of southern Punjab: 11
2.10. Important cities art & craft: 11
2.10.1 Multan: 11
2.10.2 Bahawlpur: 11
2.10.3 Uch sharif: 12
2.10.4 Muzaffargarh: 12
2.10.5 Palm leaf weaving: 13
2.11 Conclusion: 13
2.12 Summary: 14
3 LOCAL Case Studies 15
3.1 Lok virsa: 15
3.1.1 Aims and objectives: 15
3.1.2 Reason for selection: 16
3.1.3 Parts of complex: 16
3.1.8 HALLS OF MUSEUM: 19
3.2 ANALYSIS: 19
3.3 Conclusion: 21
3.4 ALHAMRA CULTURAL COMPLEX 21
3.4.1 Introduction: 22
3.4.2 OBJECTIVE: 22
3.4.3 REASON FOR SELECTION: 22
3.4.4 DESIGN CONCEPT: 22
3.4.5 CONTEXT: 22
3.5 ANALYSIS: 27
4 International Case Studies 28
4.1 Delhi haat , janakPuri , India 28
4.1.1 Introduction: 28
4.1.2 OBJECTIVES: 29
4.1.3 Reason for selection: 29
4.1.4 Design concept: 29
4.1.5 Context: 29
4.1.6 Parts of complex: 30
4.1.20 Analysis: 40
4.2 Canadian museum of civilization 40
4.2.1 Introduction: 40
4.2.2 Objective of museum: 41
4.2.3 Reason for selection: 41
4.2.4 Concept of museum: 41
4.2.5 Building of museum: 42
4.2.6 Floor plan of museum: 42
4.3 Analysis: 46
5 Site Analysis 47
5.2 Selection of city: 47
5.3 Profile of city: 47
5.3.1 Historical background of Multan: 48
5.3.2 Exclusivity of Multan region: 48
5.4 Site selection criteria: 49
5.5 Macro analysis: 50
5.5.1 Climate: 51
5.5.2 Seasonal climate: 51
5.6 Meso analysis 52
5.7 Micro analysis: 52
5.7.1 Site context: 52
5.7.2 site data: 52
5.7.3 Sun direction: 53
5.8 Conclusion 53
6 technical detail 54
6.1 Museums 54
6.1.1 Functional requirements of museum: 54
6.1.2 Function of museum: 54
6.1.3 Exhibition galleries: 55
6.1.4 Types of galleries: 56
6.1.5 Consideration for vision: 56
6.1.6 Lighting consideration: 57
6.1.7 Light protection: 61
6.2 Open air theatre: 61
6.2.1 Introduction: 61
6.2.2 Functional requirements of theatre: 61
6.2.3 Types of theatre: 62
6.2.4 Space requirements: 62
6.2.5 Lighting consideration: 63
6.2.6 Light in relation to stage: 63
6.2.7 House: 64
6.3 Work space: 65
6.3.1 General consideration: 65
6.3.2 Freedom and Flexibility of Space: 65
6.3.3 Visual Environments: 65
6.3.4 Buffer Zones: 65
6.3.5 Locating space with respective to activities: 66
6.3.6 Thermal comfort: 66
6.3.7 Space inter-relation: 66
6.4 Designing of multifield workspace: 67
6.5 Workspace for individual and group work: 67
6.6 Technical requirements are: 67
6.6.1 General requirement of studio: 68
6.7 Library 69
6.7.1 Space for Books 69
6.7.2 Space for Readers 69
6.8 Auditorium 70
6.8.1 Seating Categories: 70
6.8.2 Seating types: 70
6.8.3 General Section: 70
6.9 Experiential/Symbolic Spaces: 71
6.10 Space for Staff 71
6.10.1 Conference Room & Restaurants 72
6.11 Conclusions: 72
7 architectural program 74
7.1 Cultural heritage museum: 74
7.1.1 Hall of faden memories: 75
7.1.2 Hall of ancient dynasties: 77
7.1.3 Hall of arts & crafts: 77
7.1.4 Hall of architecture: 77
7.1.5 Hall of Sufism & shrines: 78
7.1.6 Hall of literature & melody: 78
7.2 Open air theatre: 79
7.3 Craft bazar: 79
7.3.1 Pottery making: 79
7.3.2 Palm leaf weaving: 80
7.3.3 Khusa making: 81
7.3.4 Chunri making: 82
7.3.5 Block printing: 82
7.3.6 Ralli making: 82
7.3.7 Jewelry 83
7.4 Auditorium & social space requirements: 85
7.5 Library requirements: 86
7.6 Food court requirements: 86
7.7 Open spaces: 87
7.8 Administration requirements: 87
7.9 Services: 87
7.10 Parking 88
7.11 Open space: 89
8 Design Concept 90
8.1 Structure and Material 91
Table of Figures
Figure 1-1 User group 3
Figure 2 1 Manifestation of Culture at Different Levels of Depth 5
Figure 2 2Area distribution of Southern Punjab in comparison of Punjab 8
Figure 2 3 District of Southern Punjab 8
Figure 2 4 Multani Khusa making 11
Figure 2 5 Blue pottery 11
Figure 2 6 Silver Jewelry 12
Figure 2 7 Ralli making 12
Figure 2 8 Chunri making 12
Figure 2 9 Chunri design 12
Figure 2 10 Embroidery of Muzaffargarh 13
Figure 2 11 Embroidery of Muzaffargarh 13
Figure 2 12 Palm leaf weaving 13
Figure 3 1 Lok Virsa activities 16
Figure 3 2 Site plan of Lok Virsa 17
Figure 3 3 Artisans shop 17
Figure 3 4 Entrance of library 18
Figure 3 5 Interior of library 18
Figure 3 6 View of open air theatre 18
Figure 3 7 Lok Virsa museum entrance 19
Figure 3 8 interior view 19
Figure 3 9 interior view 19
Figure 3 10 Museum layout 19
Figure 3 11 Material on heritage museum wall 20
Figure 3 12 Faulty sight lines, open air section and plan 21
Figure 3 13 Outer view of Alhamra cultural complex 22
Figure 3 14 Site plan of Alhamra Cultural complex 23
Figure 3 15 Ratio of Constructed area 23
Figure 3 16 Ratio of un constructed area 23
Figure 3 17 Plan of open air theatre 24
Figure 3 18 View of open air theatr 24
Figure 3 19 Section 24
Figure 3 20 Ground Floor Plan 25
Figure 3 21 Movement plan on Ground Floor 25
Figure 3 22 Auditorium of Alhamra Cultural Complex 26
Figure 3 23 Auditorium for 350 people 26
Figure 3 24 Auditorium for 136 people 26
Figure 3 25 Permanent gallery interior view 26
Figure 3 26 Private gallery interior view 26
Figure 3 27 Red bricks on complex & blue tiles on elevation 27
Figure 4 1 Delhi Haat 29
Figure 4 2 Basic concept of Delhi Haat Janakpuri 29
Figure 4 3 Site link from city 30
Figure 4 4 Transportation link 30
Figure 4 5 Site plan 31
Figure 4 6 Sun path around the Site 31
Figure 4 7 Rendered Site Plan 31
Figure 4 8 Movement of pedestrian in site 32
Figure 4 9 Entrance of Delhi Haat 32
Figure 4 10 Entrance and Section 33
Figure 4 11 Central zone explanation 33
Figure 4 12 Level 1 view 34
Figure 4 13 Food court elevation 34
Figure 4 14 Food court plan 35
Figure 4 15 Permanent stall’s view 35
Figure 4 16 Material and Structure of permanent stall’s 36
Figure 4 17 Elevation of exposition hall 36
Figure 4 18 Interior of exposition hall 37
Figure 4 19 Detail of Amphitheatre 37
Figure 4 20 Basket tower plan & elevation 38
Figure 4 21 Material detail 38
Figure 4 22 Material detail 39
Figure 4 23 Section of entrance & basket tower 39
Figure 4 24 Site section 39
Figure 4 25 Section of Amphitheatre & craft stalls 40
Figure 4 26 Entrance of Canadian museum of civilization 41
Figure 4 27 Show the Architectural lines of museum 41
Figure 4 28 Level 1 of museum 42
Figure 4 29 Level 2 of museum 43
Figure 4 30 Level 4 of museum 43
Figure 4 31 Level 3 of museum 43
Figure 4 32 View of Grand hall gallery 44
Figure 4 33 View of morning star dome 44
Figure 4 34 Artifacts display 44
Figure 4 35 Permanent exhibition 44
Figure 4 36 Hall of textile 45
Figure 4 37 Display of merchant house 45
Figure 4 38 Display of face to face hall 45
Figure 4 39 View of the landscape, outside the building 46
Figure 5 1 Multan location 48
Figure 5 2 Surrounding of Multan 48
Figure 5 3 Site option 49
Figure 5 4 Map of Multan 50
Figure 5 5 Maximum and Minimum Annual Temperature 51
Figure 5 6 Site & its vicinity 52
Figure 5 9 Site specifics 52
Figure 5 10 Sun direction in summer & winter 53
Figure 6 1 Functions of museum 55
Figure 6 2 Flow of museum galleries 56
Figure 6 3 Consideration for vision 57
Figure 6 4 Day light in museum 58
Figure 6 5 Artificial light on artifacts 59
Figure 6 6 objects illuminated by directional light 59
Figure 6 7 Showcase lighting for objects 59
Figure 6 8 External lighting 60
Figure 6 9 Luminous ceiling light 60
Figure 6 10 Spot lighting 61
Figure 6 11 Freedom &flexibility of working space 65
Figure6 12 Buffer zone 65
Figure 6 13 Location of space w.r.t activity 66
Figure 6 14 Space interrelationship 66
Figure 6 15 Studio space with high ceiling 68
Figure 6 16 Artificial light 68
Figure 0 17 -Diagrammatic layout showing functional requirement of a typical workshop 68
Figure 6 18 Layout of studio 68
Figure 6 19 Space for book shelving 69
Figure 6 20 Seating types in auditorium 70
Figure 6 21 Section of auditorium 71
Figure 6 22 Standard of spaces 72
Figure 7 1 Process flow of pottery making 80
Figure 7 2 Flow process of Palm leaf weaving 81
Figure7 3 Flow process of Khusa making 81
Figure 7 4 Flow process of Chunri making 82
Figure 7 5 Flow process of Block printing 82
Figure 7 6 Flow process of Ralli making 83
Figure 7 7 Flow process of Jewelry making Source: Author 84
1 Introduction of project
Saraiki virsa (cultural complex)
I imagining the CULTURAL COMPLEX based on the saraiki culture which will give the identity to the cultural heritage and living tradition. It will also provide the opportunity to the local artisan’s. It will be the place which provides the interaction of the culture with general public. The cultural complex will provide the entertainment as well as the learning to the visitors.
Culture is a very vast and complex form of living style as it varies from region to region and nation to nation.
So as an architect it is our responsibility to alive our rich traditional culture.
Southern Punjab is a large area with a population more than thirty million. This area has a rich cultural heritage and people has awareness towards social gathering. So this requires a show place of their heritage and trend. This cultural complex will provide platform where history, art and craft and living tradition of saraiki culture will displayed or exhibited in an interactive way. At present there is not a single auditorium or theatre for public in Multan.
While location at artists working in Lahore Arts Council, we find that 30% of them from Southern Punjab. If they will find an arts council in their area, they do not need to come to Lahore.
The proposed Cultural Complex will also be an important step towards the promotion and development of the arts and will provide a permanent home and identity to the arts in the city. With a full-fledged auditorium and associated buildings housing art studios, arts gallery, the scope of the complex with range from theatrical, musical, cultural, functions and shows to art and music classes and exhibitions.
Architectural style will exhibit the relationship of traditional architecture. This cultural complex will depict the ancient roots of culture, artistic activities to strengthen the creative expression. The complex will have the multiple activities to attract the tourism.
1.4.1 Need of the project:
In our country Pakistan there are many tourist attraction areas & rich traditional culture. But unfortunately very less or no effort is done to promote the culture. So to preserve and promote the nation tradition and language culture craft which is essential for the safeguard of our identity. This will be the important step for the promotion of Saraiki language and its development and thus generating the cultural activities in Multan and also provide the base for the art and craft of that region. It will also provide the opportunity to local public and tourist to see art and craft of that region.
1.4.2 Background of the project:
Pakistan is the land of rich culture and tradition, which is the sacred entity that must be kept alive in its true sense. The project of cultural complex of Saraki language is basically a study of society which has the rich culture and traditional architecture finally incorporating them in a new building which promotes their culture.
It also shows the cultural heritage to high light the mother language of Southern Punjab with Multan as its Centre.
1.5 Reason of selecting the Project:
The project is quite deep as it deals mainly to give a platform to dying skills of craftsmen so they can get the advantage to enhance their products and the promotion of the cultural heritage of a certain area which has been submissive lately.
In that way it would play its part in making capital out of it as it can play a big role in tourism of Pakistan.
Architecture deals with the people of the society and it’s a job of an Architect to help and make a better environment in the society.
To improve and project the soft image of Pakistan by organizing international events.
To educate and spread awareness among the generations about where they belong.
To link artisan with local and global marketplace, eliminating middleman.
To upgrade handicrafts according to modern trends.
Attract tourism revenue.
To give artisans a platform instilling in them a sense of competition and learning.
1.6 Aims & objectives:
To exhibit culture, history, living tradition and handicraft to the public.
The project would attempt to design a Social space for all kind of workmen and Invertors to come under a common roof.
It’s a social gathering space where they can interact and play their role in the development of not only themselves but also the country.
Another aim of this project is to eliminate the anti social activities and channelize peoples in constructive activities for the betterment of society.
It will also act like an institute to develop the skills for the people surrounding there and become the part of the society.
Most importantly its going to bring back the skills of those who’ve left their forefathers work for the reason that progressing industry and ending resources have suppressed their skills.
To create the awareness of cultural heritage socio-economic condition of masses and folk literature among the Saraiki society.
It promotes the tourism.
To provide the opportunity to the local artisan so that they can show their actual talent to the world.
Due to its cultural hub the tourist will also learn about the culture of the Southern Punjab.
There would be the opportunity for foreigners tourist to gain the knowledge of Saraiki language and culture through library books.
1.7 Target group:
Figure 1-1 User group
Government of the Punjab
1.9 Scope of the project:
There would be the open air theatre, exhibition halls, permanent galleries, temporary galleries, museum and library for people.
There would be a building complex which will design according to the local needs. This building complex includes the following spaces;
1.8.1 Open air theatre:
It hosts all the functions that would be related to folk dance and music and dramas.
1.8.2 Auditorium space:
Auditorium can be used for different functions.
1.8.3 Exhibition spaces:
There would be exhibition spaces for the art and craft of that region.
In this there would be the
1. Art galleries
2. Craft display.
In this area the tourist will see the live craft of that area so that they can experience that what are the methods of making an art piece.
1.8.4 Museum space:
There should be the exhibition of historical background of saraiki culture.
1.8.5 Library space:
There would be the library space and study areas for tourist.
Study of the Saraiki culture
Study of site & site analysis
Case study of similar projects
Research on technical requirements
Formation of concept
Study of architectural style for complex
Formation of requirements
1.10 Data collection:
Through internet browsing
Discussion with advisors
2 Literature review
2.1. Saraiki culture
Culture has various interpretations as it has a vast set of meaning when viewed in terms of human behaviour and lifestyle. One definition of culture is as follows:“A culture is a system of interrelated and interdependent habit patterns of response.” (Kroeber et al., 1952). Culture in its wider sense thus is a complex entity consisting of knowledge, symbols, belief, art, morals, law and customs based on the individual achievements, tradition and norms of a society along with any other characteristics a person acquires while being a part of this society.
“Culture in its broadest sense is cultivated behaviour; that is the totality of a person’s learned, accumulated experience which is socially transmitted, or more briefly, behaviour through social learning.” (Hofstede, 1997)
“Manifestation of Culture at Different Levels of Depth”
“Culture has been defined in a number of ways, but most simply, as the learned and shared behaviour of a community of interacting human beings” (Useem et al., 1963)
2.3. Description of culture:
Culture can be described through lifestyle. A brief description is following.
Language can be viewed as the verbal expression of culture.it is used to maintain and convey culture & cultural ties.
Through architecture it’s possible to gauge and represent many things about culture, such as, lifestyle, artistic sensibility & social structure.
A tradition is a ritual, belief or object passed down with in society, also a basic character of a society still maintained in the present, with origin in the past.
Art – diverse range of human activities & the product of those activities;
Art – the products of human creativity; works of art collectively
Art – the creation of beautiful or significant things
Art – a superior skill that you can learn by study and practice and observation
Art – artwork (wordnetweb, Princeton)
Art was also defined as a skill or mastery in doing something such as the art of making buildings etc. but it was replaced as is asserted as follows,
“This good old usage was replaced in the Romantic Period by the one that is still in current use according to which the word “Art” stands for a special faculty of a human mind to be classified with religion and science” Ernst. (2005)
Culture though is the amalgamation of many elements including skill in art and art itself thus valuing an artist and an artisan equally.
2.4. Component of culture:
The culture is made up from different component & without component culture is incomplete.
Arts and craft
2.5. Cultural heritage:
Cultural heritage includes tangible culture (such as building, monument, landscape, books, works of art & artifacts) and intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language and knowledge)
2.6. Saraiki culture at country level:
In 1981 census (the 1st national census ) of Pakistan, gather the data of dominance of saraiki people. In that year, the percentage that was noticed, Saraiki as their native language was 9.83. In the census of 1998, it was 10.53 out of a national population of 132 million, for a figure of 13.9 million Saraiki speakers tenant in Pakistan. Also according to the 1998 census, 12.8 million of those, or 92%, lived in the province of Punjab.
Figure 2 2 Distribution of native language use in Pakistan
Source: CIA world fact book
2.7. Saraiki culture at province level:
2.7.1 Punjab province:
Saraiki culture comes under the Punjab province which is most developed, most populous & most prosperous province of Pakistan. The province is bordered by Kashmir to the north-east, the Indian state of Punjab , Rajhisthan & Gujarat to the East, the Pakistani province Sindh to the South, the province of Baluchistan to the south-west, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west & the Islamic Capital territory to the north. The name of Punjab came from Persian word PANJ (Five) & AAB (water).
2.7.2 Southern Punjab:
Southern Punjab has no definite boundaries but the areas where Seraiki is spoken in domination are considered to be the part of Southern Punjab, therefore 3 division of Punjab are the part of Southern Punjab, they are Multan, Bahawalpur and Dera Ghazi Khan divisions containing of 11 districts The total area of these districts of Southern Punjab is 99572km2 which makes up 48.5% of the total area of Punjab Province. This shows that area wise the southern Punjab region is almost the half of the Punjab province.
Figure 2 2Area distribution of Southern Punjab in comparison of Punjab
Figure 2 3 District of Southern Punjab
Multan is the 4th major city of Punjab & if we count it in southern punjab it become the first populated city.
Table 1 Major cities of southern Punjab population
NO City Population
1 Multan 5,206,481
2 Bahawalpur 2,443,929
3 DG khan 630,645
2.8. Saraiki’s culture:
Saraiki culture is the oldest in the world history, dating from ancient antiquity to modern era. Now a days mostly saraiki people live in southern Punjab & practice their culture there. Due to its location & fertile land this region of pujab came under constant attack. Tis area was invaded by Irani, Alexander, Raja Dahir, Muhammad Bin Qasim, Sikh rule, Mughals, British. When this area came under the different dynasties during the different period various elements were added in the saraiki culture. Like blue tiles it came from the Central Asia.
2.8.1 Characteristic of saraiki culture:
Saraiki culture is rich & diverse. There are so many factors which make the culture unique & it has following characteristic.
Mixed and rich culture
Rich architecture & literature
2.8.2 Ancient culture:
The story of saraiki culture starts from the Aryan’s arrivals. In the ancient times, Aryan’s lives around Esfahan, and middle Iran making through Caspian sea situated in the mid of Tehran. From there they crossed Qandahar & reached the bank of Indus River & after crossing that they entered in Multan in 1500 B.C. From that time the people were Hindus but after the Iran invasion they took Islam as their religion.
2.8.3 Mixed & rich culture:
During the period of foreign invasion, high number of the layers & complexity were added in saraiki culture. This thing increased the Sraiki culture to another level. People of different languages, culture, custom and races came to Multan for various reasons. Due to this the richness & diversity were added in Saraki culture.
2.8.4 Rich architecture & literature:
Saraiki people believe that they are the decedents of Aryan’s. With the advent of Islam, settlers from Persia and central Asia have also integrated. These dynasties have strong effect on Architecture & literature. The land of southern Punjab has the significant no of temples,(Sorj Temple in Multan)shrines, (in multan) Mahal, fort, parks and Mosques type building.
Early saraiki literature was written by saints & scholars. There is some well-known saraiki poets
Khawja Gulam Farid, his famous collection is Deewan-e-Farid
Sachal Sar Mast
Shakir Shujaabadi is the famous 20th century poet
2.9. Saraiki culture components:
2.9.1 Saraiki folklore:
Folklore is the body of expressive culture. It includes music, dance, legends, oral history & popular believe. Folk dance that is practiced in saraiki culture is JHOMAR & the famous instruments are Garha, Dhol & Sharna. Saraiki folk songs are the mirror of the rural life. Singers of saraiki songs are Pthany khan, Attaullah Isa Khelvi, Anmol siyal.
The ordinary rural man wears a Pag (turban) on his head. The normal dress is waist coat or Majhli generally white or blue. The shirt known as the Chola is close by button in front. The chaddar which is thrown across shoulder is rich material & known as Lungi or Khais.
The dress of women consists of long shirt & pajama or Ghagra choli (choti choli).the color of that dressesare bright. Over the head & shoulder is worn by Bochan (Dupta).
The staple food of the people is Roti made of Atta & rice. Rice are not grown good here so imported from other Districts. Gur & Shakr are used in villages. Lassi is used in both urban & rural areas. Lassi made of fresh curd & drunk by all type of people.kheer & Gajr ka halwa and zarda are eaten. Methi Tikya is also famous food in saraiki culture.
People have festival to commemorate the tradition. The festivals in Saraiki culture reflect the entire gamut of its folk life & cultural tradition. In saraiki culture Urs & Myla,s are very common festivals people came from different areas to the saints shrine at the time of Urs.
Sangh Mela is a Vaisakhi fair celebrated during March and April in Sakhi Sarwar
Cholistan desert jeep rally is the off road race. This event is annually run in cholistan desert.
Jhoke Seraiki Sangat is also held in Multan.
2.9.5 Art & craft of southern Punjab:
In Saraiki areas, art & craft which are particularly famous are pottery, khusa, camel skin, chunri etc are in high demandin Pakistan & other countries. Multan is famous for blue pottery & khais. Dera Gazi Khan is famous for chappal, Uch Sharif for chunni, & tunsa for embroidery.
2.10. Important cities art & craft:
In Multan following are famous craft.
Blue Pottery making
Kashikari & khais
Camel skin lamps
Figure 2 4 Multani Khusa making
Figure 2 5 Blue pottery
Bahawalpur is famous in following crafts
Rally making & saada khais making
Embroidery, cotton, silk
Figure 2 6 Silver Jewelry
Source: Cultural expression of southern Punjab
Figure 2 7 Ralli making
Source: Bahawalpur its Land & people
2.10.3 Uch sharif:
Figure 2 8 Chunri making
Figure 2 9 Chunri design
Source: women empowerment through craft
Uch sharif is famous for chunri making.
Muzaffargarh is famous for embroidery.
Figure 2 10 Embroidery of Muzaffargarh
Source: Cultural expression of southern Punjab
Figure 2 11 Embroidery of Muzaffargarh
Source: Cultural expression of southern Punjab
2.10.5 Palm leaf weaving:
Palm leaf weaving is the craft which is famous & practice in all cities of southern Punjab.
Figure 2 12 Palm leaf weaving
Source: Women empowerment through craft
Thus it is an obvious fact that a society without culture and elements to support culture and project it will be the
Having little or no intellect
Having no identity
So from the above explanation we can conclude
Culture is imminent for
Craft show the culture of any region. I explain above that what the craft which are practised in southern Punjab. But I am taking the craft which are most famous in different cities of southern Punjab.
3 LOCAL Case Studies
3.1 Lok virsa:
Table 2 Lok Virsa statics
Architect Prvaiz associate, Bhatti associate and Naqvi associate
Location Garden avenue , Islamabad , Pakistan
Completed in 1974
Building type Public museum
Area of site 90.7 acres
Total area of museum 60,000 sq. ft
No of galleries and hall 25
3.1.1 Aims and objectives:
Lok Virsa (the National Institute of Folk and Traditional Heritage) work toward conserving the living folk and traditional culture of Pakistan by accumulating, documenting and projecting it. Survey, research and documentation of the cultural heritage of Pakistan are its fundamental objectives.
The aim of Lok Virsa is to build up the roots of Pakistani culture.
To educate the general public
Promotion of cultural heritage and cultural industries of Pakistan
Gives an opportunity to for Pakistani people to have look at their links with the past
To show the diversity of culture and living style of Pakistan through models
To show village life in different area
To preserve craft of different regions
3.1.2 Reason for selection:
The whole complex exhibits culture in very interesting way. The display of galleries is very live and interesting which attract the visitors. The heritage museum is very first state museum of cultural heritage in country and it is very good example of cultural heritage museum.
3.1.3 Parts of complex:
The complex consists of:
Open air theatre
Virsa media center
National institute of cultural studies
Figure 3 1 Lok Virsa activities
2. Virsa café
3. Heritage museum
4. Open air theatre
5. Administration block
6. Media center
7. Open ground
3.1.4 CRAFT SHOPS:
The craft shops have been designed to provide the opportunity to local artisans. Artisans from all part of Pakistan exhibit their craft and they sold their handicraft there.
Figure 3 3 Artisans shop
3.1.5 Heritage library:
Heritage library is to provide the assistance to scholars, students and common people on folklore and cultural heritage by accumulating the field research and collecting the cultural studies. It has large collection of books on folk music, culture, arts and craft history.
Figure 3 4 Entrance of library
Figure 3 5 Interior of library
3.1.6 Open air theatre:
Open air theatre is designed for folk and cultural programs. It has the capacity of 1500 people.
Figure 3 6 View of open air theatre
3.1.7 Lok virsa museum:
Lok Virsa museum also known as the heritage museum runs by the National Institute of Folk & Traditional Heritage. It presents the history and living tradition of the people of Pakistan. The museum covered 60,000sq.ft area featuring exhibit halls, making it the largest museum in Pakistan. Different material used on the exterior of the museum which shows the traditional architecture like fresco, mirror wok, marble inlay tiles, mosaic and stucco tracery are also displayed.
Figure 3 7 Lok Virsa museum entrance
Figure 3 8 interior view
Source: Author Figure 3 9 interior view
3.1.8 HALLS OF MUSEUM:
1. Antiquity and continuity
2. Textile and embroidery
3. Sufi and shrines
4. Ballades and romances
5. Musical heritage
6. Thematic exhibition’
7. Architectural and wood work
8. Jewellery and metal work
9. Ethnic tribes
Complex exhibit the culture in very good manner but there are some issues which need to be considered.
It has to 6 gates in which 2nd is used by staff and 3rd is used by visitors and 5 is used by Nics. 1, 3, 6 remain closed. As gate no 1 remain closed so it creates confusion.
At the entrance the complex seems deader rather than alive, giving realization to the absence of incentives.
Relationship between the parts of complex is week like toilets are placed between the open air and heritage museum.
The segments of offices blocks do not provide an efficient environment for healthy interaction between various team handling different departments of Lok Virsa.
Parking facility for visitor is not given inside the museum.
Heritage Library has two entrances, one from the main museum which is enterable after you pay the ticket and walk through the entire museum. The second one is from outside and it is behind the administration area. Its entry is free of cost but it is of the way.
Site planning has no harmony and strong relationship between each other.
Spaces between the built areas are left unplanned.
The exterior wall of museum is treated to represent culture and different material used on it. Like one wall is treated to represent the walled city architecture but it look fake and other exterior wall have different facades.
Figure 3 11 Material on heritage museum wall
No rest place is to designed for artisans.
Open spaces are not well designed like the large space back of the artisans shop is left unplanned.
There is no breathing space inside the museum no entrance of the natural light to come inside the museum.
Stage of open air theatre is conical shape.
The sight lines are not well thought out as visibility is hindered by the person sitting at the front in open air theatre.
Figure 3 12 Faulty sight lines, open air section and plan
The spaces should be organized as to provide the better interactive environment.
The administration should be in one place rather than the different places.
All the spaces which are given should be the part of museum.
Separated toilets should be given for the officials and for public.
Storage spaces for art galleries and for the whole complex should be provided.
Services area for the artisan’s shops should be well designed.
3.4 ALHAMRA CULTURAL COMPLEX
Table 3 Alhamra statics
Architect Nayyer Ali Dada
Location Gadaffi stadium, Gulburg Lahore ,
Completed in 1993
Building type Public/cultural
Building usage Theatre
Area of site 60,000 sq. ft
Alhamra open air theatre was constructed in 1993.The shape of the plan is round as that of Colosseum and was designed by the architect NAYYER ALIDADA. It is a public building and is used as theatre, the similar function as that of Colosseum in the history. It is the hub of cultural activities of Lahore and plays an important role in enhancing the cultural activities to the entire country.
Figure 3 13 Outer view of Alhamra cultural complex
Cultural complex is designed to provide open air theatre which can accommodate large number of audience and host the cultural programs. The commercial activities on ground floor provide finance for the building.
3.4.3 REASON FOR SELECTION:
Alhamra cultural complex is a good example of open air theatre, auditorium and exhibition spaces.
3.4.4 DESIGN CONCEPT:
The concept of building is directly related with Greek and roman theatre. Special consideration is given to traditional architecture and usage of local material. The arena has been deigned to accommodate seating on all four side. The large masses are separated at joints in order to bring light into complex. For this purpose arcade is provided at ground floor and arcade opening at the top of exposed solid wall.
Cultural complex is located at the sports hub of Lahore.it is accessible by the road leading to Qaddaffi and National Hockey Stadium. It is located at distance of 5 km from Alhamra Art Council.
The context includes:
Punjab institute if language and culture
National hockey stadium
1. Front Entrance
2. 2nd entrance
3. Open air theatre
4. Permanent exhibition gallery
5. Free standing esthetic element
6. Open ground
7. Parking used only for VIP guest
8. Qaddafi stadium
Figure 3 15 Ratio of Constructed area
Figure 3 16 Ratio of un constructed area
Large open area is kept open
No proper landscape design
No proper sitting in open are
3.4.7 OPEN AIR THEATRE:
The stage is designed at the Centre and seating all around the stage. The theatre has hexagonal form with seating capacity of 4500 people.
Basic mass of building has cylindrical form with diameter of 200 ft. and height of 44ft.coverd area of ground floor is 2787 meter square and combined floor area is 3530 meter square. Seating surrounds the stage on all four sides except on north stage side where the back stage facilities are provided. The transfer from the circular envelop to the hexagonal stage create the two type of the circulation patterns, one that radically runs from Centre to the periphery and other runs parallel to the sides of hexagon.
Figure 3 17 Plan of open air theatre
Source: The Miraas
Figure 3 18 View of open air theatr
Figure 3 19 Section
Source: The Miraas
3.4.8 GROUND FLOOR:
The ground floor consist of two auditorium ,art and craft museum, private gallery and permanent gallery, offices, canteen and workshop places.
Figure 3 20 Ground Floor Plan
Figure 3 21 Movement plan on Ground Floor
It has two auditoriums on ground floor.
One with the seating capacity of 350 persons
One with seating capacity of 136 persons.
Figure 3 22 Auditorium of Alhamra Cultural Complex
Back stage facilities are not properly maintained
No fire exit
3.4.11 ART AND CRAFT MUSEUM:
Small museum display artefacts and art and craft from rural and urban area.
3.4.12 MATERIAL AND STRUCTURE:
The main building has a reinforced concrete beam structure filled with handmade bricks and red brick cladding with traditional red surkhi mortar. The flooring is made up of terrazzo and in sitting area strips of bricks has been used. Acoustical plaster has been used in auditorium.
Sequence of spaces leading toward arena is very well designed.
Entrance of private gallery and museum is not well designed.
Parking is not designed and paved space is used for parking.
Interior of complex is very dark and no access of natural light.
Interior of auditorium is good but it has no fire exist.
Balcony of auditorium 1st is very high.
Some step in open air theatre have acute angle.
Outer areas have no proper designed landscaping and no sitting areas are designed.
Back stage areas are poorly maintained.
No accessibility for handicapped.
4 International Case Studies
4.1 Delhi haat , janakPuri , India
Table 4 Delhi haat statics
Architect Sourabh gupta India
Location Opposite Virender Nagar, Lal Sain Marg, Janak Puri, New Delhi
Completed in 2014
Building type Public / cultural
Area of site 9.6 acres
Project cost 81crore
Delhi haat , janakPuri is place that has been integrated with the setting of the food and craft market and music and it create the ambience of traditional Indian culture. This is the place where all the section of society comes to visit this place and get engage themselves in different activities. This place is given rise to diverse social interaction along with the different recreational activities like eating, buying crafts and attending different musical shows in amphitheatre.
Figure 4 1 Delhi Haat
Source: Arch daily
To promote tourism attraction
To preserve and sustain the cultural heritage
4.1.3 Reason for selection:
A good example of incorporating the culture in outdoor areas. Different attractions are incorporated which depicts the culture. The shopping areas are design according to the nature of crafts.
4.1.4 Design concept:
Delhi haat was designed on musical theme. Delhi Haat JanakPuri breaks the convention of the brick that was used on the other two Delhi Haat’s. In JanakPuri different material were used.
Figure 4 2 Basic concept of Delhi Haat Janakpuri
Source: Arch daily
Site is not located in centre. It shows that it will attract the people away from congested Centre of south Delhi and this complex will also serve the western area of Delhi. Site linked the public transport very well. It links the local national and international via public transport. The site is closed from the railway station and airport which shows that it is very good place.
Figure 4 4 Transportation link
4.1.6 Parts of complex:
Parking 292 cars, 122 bikes and 4 buses
Typical craft shops
Open platform shops
4.1.7 Site plan:
Figure 4 5 Site plan
Figure 4 6 Sun path around the Site
Figure 4 7 Rendered Site Plan
4.1.8 Movement of pedestrian:
Figure 4 8 Movement of pedestrian in site
Figure 4 9 Entrance of Delhi Haat
Figure 4 10 Entrance and Section
4.1.10 Central plaza:
Figure 4 11 Central zone explanation
4.1.11 Level 1:
Ramp lead to the level 1. Ramp designed that way that when a person climbs on that ramp he can see central courtyard. From the level 1 we can see the different parts of haat and a person on ground floor can also see the upper level person.
Figure 4 12 Level 1 view
4.1.12 Food court:
Glass is used for the purpose that if a person sit inside the food court he can see the view of haat.
Figure 4 13 Food court elevation
Figure 4 14 Food court plan
4.1.13 Permanent stalls:
These stalls are built with natural stone masonry and covered with the technologically advanced canopies. Space between the stall is very well used because they put the planters here.
Figure 4 15 Permanent stall’s view
4.1.14 Material and structure of permanent stalls:
Figure 4 16 Material and Structure of permanent stall’s
4.1.15 Exposition hall:
Colourful flowering soften the scale and it also control the temperature. Because there is the steel covering on the top so it helps to maintain the temperature.
Figure 4 17 Elevation of exposition hall
Figure 4 18 Interior of exposition hall
Amphitheatre has the capacity of 800 people. The top of the amphitheatre give the view of entire haat. The stage is competitively smaller. Ramps are also there for physically disabled people. There is the underground auditorium which has the capacity of 806 seats.
Figure 4 19 Detail of Amphitheatre
4.1.17 Basket tower:
Basket tower are 4 in numbers and it cover 260 sqm area. Basket tower are the music tower (table). ATM, Tourist Information Centre, Courier Service etc., is provided in the towers.
Figure 4 20 Basket tower plan & elevation
Figure 4 21 Material detail
Figure 4 22 Material detail
Figure 4 23 Section of entrance & basket tower
Figure 4 24 Site section
Figure 4 25 Section of Amphitheatre & craft stalls
Site is not located in Centre of city
Low height entrance comparatively compact and dull
Front of the food court is glass wall which can enhance the inside temperature in summer
The space between the two craft shops is less maintained
The front wall of the exposition hall is covered with glass which can enhance the temperature. And its roof is made up of steel which also can enhance the temperature of inside building in summer
Stage of amphitheatre is comparatively smaller
4.2 Canadian museum of civilization
Table 5 Canadian museum of civilization
Architect Douglas cardinal
Location Gatineau, Quebec, Canada
Completed in 1989
Building type Human and culture history museum
Area of museum 270,000 sq. ft
Canadian museum of civilization is Canada’s national museum of human history and Canada’s culture. The galleries houses are mix of the permanent and changing exhibition.
Figure 4 26 Entrance of Canadian museum of civilization
4.2.2 Objective of museum:
Primary purpose of museum is to collect, study, preserve, and present material objective that illuminate human history of Canada and cultural diversity of its people. The museum of civilization’s permanent galleries explore Canada’s 20,000 year of human history and a program of special exhibition expand on Canadian theme & explore other culture & civilization, past & present.
4.2.3 Reason for selection:
It is the Canadian most visited museum. It is the home of world largest indoor collection to highlight the culture, historic and artistic achievement of Canada people.
4.2.4 Concept of museum:
Architect conceives the design process as beginning from the inside & expands outward. The form of the museum has been inspired from the glaciers which is geographical feature of Canada.
Figure 4 27 Show the Architectural lines of museum
4.2.5 Building of museum:
Canada’s museum of civilization, has area of 93,000 square meter and four stories.
Major galleries are
Grand hall, First people hall
Temporary exhibition, Children and postal exhibition
4.2.6 Floor plan of museum:
Figure 4 28 Level 1 of museum
Figure 4 29 Level 2 of museum
Figure 4 30 Level 4 of museum
Figure 4 31 Level 3 of museum
4.2.7 Grand hall gallery:
It is the museum’s architectural piece. It features a wall of windows 367 ft wide & 49 ft high, framing the view of Ottawa River &parliament hill. On the opposite wall is a colour photograph of similar size. It captures the forest scene and is believed that it is the largest colour photograph of the world. 19 m dome at the end of Grand Hall & there is an abstract painting known as morning star.
Figure 4 32 View of Grand hall gallery
Figure 4 33 View of morning star dome
4.2.8 First people hall:
The permanent gallery narrates the history and accomplishment of Canada’s people from their original habitation to the present day. It explores the diversity of the first people, their interaction with land and their on-going contribution to society.
Figure 4 34 Artifacts display
Figure 4 35 Permanent exhibition
4.2.9 Canada hall:
Figure 4 36 Hall of textile
Figure 4 37 Display of merchant house
Canada hall occupy the 3rd level of building.
4.2.10 Face to face:
It is the Canada personality Hall introduces the personalities whose vision & action had significant impact on Canada and inhabitants.
Figure 4 38 Display of face to face hall
4.2.11 Landscaping features:
The topography of Canada is used in landscape. To depict this hillock are interspersed across the space with snaking pathways.
Figure 4 39 View of the landscape, outside the building
The exterior of the museum does not depict the strong relationship with glaciers as it being inspired from glacier.
The flow of museum is confused to some extant
The interior is design on monumental scale not on human scale
Half of the galleries of museum are illuminated by natural light
5 Site Analysis
5.1 Selection of city:
Multan is the 5th largest metropolis city of Pakistan & its importance can be described by following facts
It is Pakistan’s fifth largest city by population
Multan is the 4th major city of Punjab
If we count it in southern Punjab it becomes the first populated city.
Called the city of saints & Madina-tul-oleya.
Southern Punjab is very rich in culture & cultural heritage. Multan is very important city of southern Punjab & it does not have any building which facilitates the culture & cultural activities. Moreover the city Multan has very less entertainment facilities. So the city Multan for the Cultural Complex.
5.2 Profile of city:
Multan city stands between the longitudes 30.19 North, latitude 71.46 East. The city covers the area of approximately 133 square kilometres (51 sq. mi). Multan city is located in a bend created by five confluent Rivers & on the East bank of Chenab River, the Sutlej separates it from Bahawalpur and Chenab from Muzaffargarh. It is located more or less the geographic centre of the country & about 562 km from Islamabad, 356 km from Lahore & 966 km from Karachi.
Figure 5 1 Multan location
Figure 5 2 Surrounding of Multan
5.2.1 Historical background of Multan:
Historically Multan region has enjoyed a unique position during different periods in history. Among the few ancient cities of Pakistan, Multan has the distinction of possessing an almost uninterrupted history of religious, political and social activities spread-over a period of not less than five thousand years. It is the region where Indus valley of civilization flourished which is one of the oldest civilizations of the world. This civilization flourished in the years 5000-1500 BC. Since then or at least with the dawn of the historic era in this part of the sub-continent, Multan region has been in the limelight. It was the oldest trade route from Central Asia, Kabul, and Delhi. It was an important city politically, militarily and a centre of considerable commerce and trade between India, Central Asia and the Middle Eastern countries (Hanif Raza, 1988: 146-147; I. H. Qureshis, 1984: 36-37).
5.2.2 Exclusivity of Multan region:
Multan region has a separate identity throughout history. The historical record shows that it was a separate province of the Hindu state of Sindh (Before 712 AD), a province of Arab state (712-1206 AD), a province of Delhi sultanate (1206-1526 AD), a province of the Mughal Empire (1526-1857) and a province of Sikh kingdom (1818- 1849). It was an independent state during the era of 1206-1227 AD and 1437 to 1527 AD. Historically Multan had a separate and unique identity for about two thousand and five hundred years. Multan region has its own language, culture, art, architecture and folk lore.
The proposed site of the cultural complex is located in Multan. The site is accessible from North-East Baba Safra Road. Site has an area of 12 Acres.
The aim of selecting the site in Multan for cultural complex is to facilitate:
Saraiki culture in Southern Punjab
Cultural & entertainment facilities in city
5.3 Site selection criteria:
Site should be in or almost at the centre of the city so that maximum number of people can have access to it and the craftsmen can also have easy access from whole city areas.
Figure 5 3 Site option
Site should not be in an isolated place. It should be located where there is some kind of activities already taken place i.e. mixed used of activities. It is preferable to locate the site in an area with a cultural context. So according to the criteria narrow down my site options
In cant area near international airport In Inner Multan
near Shah Shammas mausoleum On By pass road near Raza town
Central location * *** *
Main road approach *** ** ***
No. of activities ** *** *
Cultural context * *** *
7 11 6
* Average ** Good *** Very Good
According to the selection criteria and site rating I selected site # 2 that is located in inner Multan near Shah Rukne Alam mausoleum.
5.4 Macro analysis:
Multan is city of Southern Punjab; Pakistan. It is Pakistan’s 5th largest city by population and has an area of 133 square kilometre (51 sq. mi). The city is located on the bank of the Chenab in the geographic centre of the country.
Multan as a traditional which goes back to the Bronze Age rich in archaeology and history, the city has lot to offer for those in search of culture. But, more than anything, it’s a monument that gives the glory of its own. Old Multan is actually a fortified city built on huge ancient mound and with the six gates set at different places. Multan, it is not surprising, is also known as “Madina-tul-Aulya”, the city of saints. It has the Tombs, Mosques and “Khanqahs”(hospices)of saints.
Figure 5 4 Map of Multan
Multan features an acrid climate with very hot summer and mild winter. The city witness some of very extreme weather in country. The highest recorded temperature is approximately 54 *C (129 *F), and the lowest recorded temperature is approximately -1 *C (30 *F). The average rainfall is 186 millimetres (7.3 in). Dust storm is common occurrence with in the city.
5.4.2 Seasonal climate:
The average lowest temperature in the season of winter is 4.5 *C. While the average highest temperature is recorded in December which is 22.7 *C. Heavy rains occur in winter which decreases the weather further.
The highest average temperature in spring is 35 *C. and it was recorded in April while the lowest is recorded in march that was 13.5 *C. Rains are rare in spring season.
Summer is the longest season of Multan city. Monsoon rains also occur in this season, the rains begin from June till September. Violent dust storm occur in May and June while almost all the summer LOO blow that causes the traffic to remain thin. Heavy rains also occur during monsoon season. The highest average temperature recorded In June and that was 42.3 *C while the lowest was recorded in September and that was 24.9 *C.
The season begin from October and ends in November. Hazy and dry weather is the main factor of autumn. The average highest temperature was recorded in month of October and that was 34 *C and the lowest average temperature was 10.9 *C in November.
5.5 Meso analysis
Figure 5 6 Site & its vicinity
5.6 Micro analysis:
5.6.1 Site context:
Site is located near Shah Shamas tomb at one side & on other side there is Aam Khas bagh (park). Ghanta ghr is located at a distance of 2km & famous Shah Shamas Park is 1.2 km away from site. Site is located in commercial & residential context. There is no entertainment facility near site. So site has the potential to attract the visitors.
5.6.2 site data:
5.6.3 Sun direction:
Table 6 By-Laws of Site
Site Area 14 acre
Front Set Backs 30’
Rear Set Backs 13’
Side Set Backs 13’
Right Side Set Backs 13’
Parking 1 car space for 1000 sq. ft
Site Coverage 85%
Height Restriction 70’
The area near the site is rich in cultural context and has its own specific type of architecture of red bricks. That type of architecture will have to be honoured and incorporated in a very sensible way so that even though my building is unique, it still merges with the surroundings.
6 technical detail
A museum is an institution that cares for collection of artifacts & objects of scientific, artistic, cultural & historical importance.
6.1.1 Functional requirements of museum:
The museum is a frame & effective support upon which work is displayed, composed & preserved. The museum preserve art & enable visitors to discover explore in a creative & interactive environment.
Design of museum include following functional requirements
Defined flow & loop for visiting galleries
Display of galleries should be attractive & interesting
Lightening consideration for display of exhibition galleries
6.1.2 Function of museum:
6.1.3 Exhibition galleries:
An exhibition is successful if it is physically, intellectually, mentally & emotionally is engaging to those who experiencing it. For achieving this exhibitions should include innovative use of media, material & display techniques. The galleries of museum should incorporate:
Design elements (colour, light, exhibit furniture) that contribute & support the exhibition ideas & tone.
Flow of exhibit at the start & throughout the exhibition provide visitors with a conceptual, physical & effective overview of the exhibition
Flow of galleries should be clearly defined. The overall flow should provide a new experience. The entering & exit flow of gallery should be different. Visitors should not have to pass through the spaces which they have already visited in order to reach the exit.
Figure 6 2 Flow of museum galleries
6.1.4 Types of galleries:
Exhibition galleries are main part of museum. The presentation & display needs to be appealing, varied, interesting & attractive. For this reason the different display medium & method are used in galleries. In an exhibition gallery a combination of different medium can be used to attract visitor interest
The different medium are
The different display methods are
Exhibits on wall
Free standing exhibits
Exhibit in showcase
6.1.5 Consideration for vision:
The average eye level for an adult is 5ft 2 inch & for children is 3ft 10 inch. With little eye movement people recognize display with ease with in cone of vision & average viewing distance is 24ft to 48 inch. This distance increase with the height of exhibition.
6.1.6 Lighting consideration:
Lighting plays important role in developing interaction between human & museum artifacts in defined space. Lighting is critical component in a museum environment because the space enables visitors to see objects, experience new sights & react to the surrounding environment. It creates & enhances visual experience in any exhibition. The lighting system used in museum are natural & artificial light. Concept of light is based on following consideration
Exhibition should be clearly visible with moderate brightness in their surrounding
Artifacts should be protected from the hazards of radiation
The lighting design should maintain preservation needs as well as interactive experience that achieve the goal of museum
Museum design incorporates daylight because human relate to nature. “natural light can be used to great effect to dramatize & enliven the design of any building. Daylight always fluctuate & often used in interactive spaces. Cloud cover, seasons, the time of a day & a buildings position are factor directly impact lighting design.
Daylight has also negative impact on artifacts. Daylight has UV rays in it which are harmful for artifacts. These UV rays damage textile & artifacts.
Artificial light is completely controlled system & different types of artificial lights are used to enhance the display. The combination of day & artificial light is generally practiced.
Figure 6 5 Artificial light on artifacts
This light is used to highlight the route or flow of museum to make easy understanding of flow for the visitors.
The light falls directly on object to illuminate it. It also enhance the parts of it or visual impact of three dimensional surface.
Figure 6 6 objects illuminated by directional light
Showcases are miniature exhibition and exhibits they contain need to be illuminated accordingly with diffuse or directional light.
Figure 6 7 Showcase lighting for objects
Room & object lighting outside showcase is generally is generally provided by ceiling lights. This type of light is particularly suitable for all glass cabinets & shallow glass-topped desk showcase for viewing from above.
Figure 6 8 External lighting
The idea of luminous ceiling is to imitate effect of daylight. Luminous ceiling deliver a light which is particularly suitable for painting galleries.
The directional light of spot lamps raises the brightness & quality of exhibition
Figure 6 10 Spot lighting
6.1.7 Light protection:
Daylight & artificial light contain rays which may discolour, deform & may fade exhibits. While daylight adds to the overall ambience of the space, this light has negative impact on the artifacts. To avoid the negative impacts of lighting the proper consideration should be:
For sensitive exhibits UV rays need to be filtered
Artifacts should be protected from photochemical reaction this can be achieved by:
Choosing an effective source of light. Very sensitive material should be illuminated with a light which has less damage potentials
Filtering out harmful radiation
Limiting exposure, in darkness the risk of photo zone is zero
Before any display study of pre exposure to light should be made
Physical change of exhibits is accelerated by changing in humidity & temperature. So the thermodynamic process need to be minimized
6.2 Open air theatre:
A theatre is a primarily space for the performance of drama & its allied arts by live performance who are physically present in front of live audience
6.2.2 Functional requirements of theatre:
Theatre is spaces are designed to accommodate large audiences. They tend to have wide spans & multiple stories high in order to accommodate seating, sightline & acoustical requirements. The successful design & working of theatre depend upon:
Max comfort for the audience
Successful consideration for acoustic & sightline of audience
Max eating should be used
Consideration for the back stage & control room areas
6.2.3 Types of theatre:
Different types of theatres can be described as following
A theatre in which the audience completely surrounds the stage. The stage area is often raised to improve sightlines.
A proscenium theatre is a theatre space whose primary feature is a large archway ( the proscenium arch) at or near the front of the stage, through which the audience views the play. The audience directly face the stage, which is typically raised several feet above front row audience level.
A theatre in which stage is extended so that the audience surround it on three side. The thrust stage may be backed by an enclosed proscenium stage. Entrance onto a thrust are most readily made from backstage, although some theatre provide for performer to enter through the audience using vomitory entrances.
A theatre in which the audience seating & stage occupy the same architectural space, with the stage at one end & the audiences seated in front facing the stage.
Flexible theatre is generic term for theatre in which the playing space & audience seating can be configured as desired for each production.
6.2.4 Space requirements:
A theatre provides a space for the performer to enact their performance known as stage. It can be single platform or can be a larger stage with two smaller stage on left & right of stage.
There are three major spaces of stage
Work & storage space
Area space for different types of theatrical production for 250 people capacity:
Typology Acting area size
Drama 700-1200 sq. ft
Musical folk (folk, musical drama) 600-1800sq. ft
Stage should be 3 ft above from the lowest row of seat
For clear vision the maximum distance between the stage & last row should not be more than 80-100 ft.
It is light weight, temporary fake scene painted according to the requirements
It is used to establish the local atmosphere & environment according to the performance
It supplies proper inlet & outlet for actors to enter & leave the acting area.
Proper attention for selection of material for scenery should be given to avoid fire hazards
A proscenium is the area of theatre surrounding the stage opening. The audience directly face the playing area which is separated by proscenium arch.
It is the lowest area in front of stage where an orchestra resides as its accompanies the performers. In production where live music is required, such as ballet, opera & musical orchestra is positioned in front & below of stage in a pit. The pit is usually a large opening ranging from 4-6’ wide, 20-30’ long & 6-10’ deep the level of floor is adjustable between 7’-6’’ to 9’-6’’ below the stage.
6.2.5 Lighting consideration:
Lighting of overall theatre interior of theatre is extremely important. Every scene may require different lighting techniques in order to convay the feeling of play. The most important part in lighting a play is to make sure that the actor is not in shadow & shadow is not distracting the audience. A large part of lighting from the direction of audience is arranged so that it strike the actor face at an angle of 45 degree. If angle is much steeper it will produce the dark & flattering shadow.
Lighting is a vital part of almost any live performance. In most shows lighting has four basic functions:
To make important part of scene visible
To establish a scene of time & place, including time of a day
To contribute the composition of the scene
To convey mood or atmosphere
6.2.6 Light in relation to stage:
The main position for the lighting are
Front lighting is mostly used for visibility & colour. It is also used to isolate an individual person or set piece. Front light generally work better if placed at an angle between 30 to 50 degree.
The most common use of side lighting is effect. Side lighting is mostly used to accent movement & contrasting colour coming from opposite side.
Back lighting is used to create depth on stage. Back light must be relaxing the audience if the light is positioned into the eyes of audiences then it will not be a pleasing experience.
Background lighting is a very bold style of lighting. It is brighter than the rest of stage. It is powerful way to create picture.
Lighting control room:
The best position for the operator of lighting control board is in control room in theatre, with the observation window allowing him unrestricted view of stage. The optimal place is rare of stall where no member of audience is hindered. The control room consist of:
Space for storage
The access for control room is from the outside of theatre while one access is from inside of theatre for rehearsals. The sound control room has the same layout.
The space occupied by the audience is referred as a house. Comfort of house depended upon:
Sight line of audience
Clear vision of acting area
Width of aisles
Distance between rows
Depth of house
For having effective vision of audience special consideration should be given to the design of slope for seating & horizontal angle:
The occupant of 1st row should have a vision angle in such that his vision line should be above 5 inches from stage floor.
For open air theatre, the slope recommended for the lower portion is 12 degree while for the upper portion is 24 degree.
6.3 Work space:
6.3.1 General consideration:
The following gives guidelines to designing and maintain relation with other activities:
6.3.2 Freedom and Flexibility of Space:
As most of the handicraft production is done in household scale, the working environment is not ideal. In urban areas, space at household scale is felt inadequate to expand production.
Figure 6 11 Freedom &flexibility of working space
6.3.3 Visual Environments:
Studios must have good amount of natural daylight, with high level windows equal to at least 25-30% of the floor area. Roof lighting is also preferred. All windows should have some sort of daylight control.
6.3.4 Buffer Zones:
It is possible that noise producing workspace can affect the other. So buffers can be created by additions of walls or vegetation.
Figure6 12 Buffer zone
6.3.5 Locating space with respective to activities:
Spaces should be provided according to functional requirement. Work which requires huge machinery or supply of materials should be placed on the ground floor.
Figure 6 13 Location of space w.r.t activity
6.3.6 Thermal comfort:
A workspace should be thermally, mentally and physically comfortable Thermal comforts can be gained by application of passive techniques. It is quite difficult to maintain the thermal environment in a workspace. As there is frequent opening for supply of raw materials, heat produced by machine and vibration, heat gain and loss are frequent. Use of proper ventilation, growing vegetation as shading devices, using double glazing can be the solutions.
6.3.7 Space inter-relation:
Figure 6 14 Space interrelationship
Spaces created should be inter-related- studios, gallery, café, outdoor space should be interesting and inter-related. One cannot sit alone or isolated for longer time, it needs communication and transition of space.
6.4 Designing of multifield workspace:
Generally a multifold workspace i includes three basic units of accommodation: Workspace area which includes various workspace such as machine room, planning and designing. Storage area for raw material, finished work, storage space for tools and small, moveable equipment’s, worker‘s belonging.
Services & amenities such as staff room, locker room, wash room. The flow sequence should be uninterrupted and carefully arranged such as – in and out of the raw material from store, to the workspace, to the finished store and out. The space provided should have comfortable working environment in respect with illumination, thermal comfort, scale of furniture and fittings. There should be provision for services so as any possible user are adaptable and comfortable. As workspace mainly deals with machinery items, the construction of the building should be such as to allow admission of any sorts of machinery.
6.5 Workspace for individual and group work:
General considerations should be:
Feeling of freedom
Protective equipment / measure
Locating workspace with respect to activities
Buffer zone between workspace
Field of Activity Area Per Place in sq. ft
Khusa making 15
Pottery and Palm leaf weaving 15
Chunari and Block printing 25
6.6 Technical requirements are:
Step by step progress
Related areas should be nearby
Figure 6 15 Studio space with high ceiling
Figure 6 16 Artificial light
6.6.1 General requirement of studio:
Figure 6 17 -Diagrammatic layout showing functional requirement of a typical workshop
Noise emanating from craft room must be carefully considered in order to prevent disturbance in other rooms. Various craft rooms are better to be grouped together to facilitate the concentration and distribution of services.
The total need may be divided into four categories, viz.
4) Group meeting
The total need may be divided into four categories, viz.
4) Group meeting
6.7.1 Space for Books
Open reading rooms
7 volumes per lineal foot, or 50 books per foot of standard height wall shelving, or 100 books per foor of double-faced shelving
Book stack areas, 15 books per square foot or 2 books per cubic foot
Figure 6 19 Space for book shelving
6.7.2 Space for Readers
As an establishment rule of thumb, minimum allowances are made of 30 sq.ft. per adult reader seating are in terms of net space for readers, chairs, tables, aisles and service desk. Seating requirements should be listed according to the several areas of the building.
An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres.
6.8.1 Seating Categories:
Stalls or arena.
Balconies or galleries
6.8.2 Seating types:
6.8.3 General Section:
6.9 Experiential/Symbolic Spaces:
Every day we communicate verbally and none verbally with people and with our environment. Your favourite rooms and how you make them your own reflects your inner feeling, desires, and outlook on life. Our living areas are always sending us messages that are not always overt but will resonate in your subconscious.
6.10 Space for Staff
There are striking differences in requirements between libraries open 20, 38 or 72 hours per week. Staff space requirements should be calculated on the basis of 100 sq.ft per staff member. It includes space for desk, chair, books and equipment. A checklist of staff work areas should include:
Staff lunch and lounge rooms
6.10.1 Conference Room & Restaurants
Figure 6 22 Standard of spaces
After reading the above mentioned data, I came to the conclusion that my project,
CULTURAL HUB will have the following things:
The definition and terms related to culture will be used to know philosophy behind
the evolution and transition in cultures through time.
Studying culture as an independent identity will also help to know the different
o modes in Saraiki culture.
The problems to be solved can be studied through cultural issues in Pakistan.
The major terms related to SARAIKI VIRSA are CULTURE, HISTORY, ARTS,
o HERITAGE and FESTIVALS.
The major cultures can be differentiating through historic eras.
Revitalizing of traditional festivals and games will be held.
The information about arts and crafts should be known to depict there real essence.
The circulation loop will be such that each object or display is easily viewable at the first instant and a person won‘t have to go back and forth to view the displays.
The ceiling heights and doorways of the museum will be according to the standards.
The modern and traditional architecture will be fused so as to excite the mind of the visitors.
Public spaces like squares shall be given where a number of activities are taking place so as to create civic sense.
Public amenities like public furniture, outdoor lighting, and themed displays shall be given in HUB for the comfort and entertainment of the visitors. Food court shall be given so as to make maximum number of people come to my site.
Workshops catering to the full needs and requirements of the artisans to enable them to practice their art to their full potential will be provided. Since such themed centres have the potential to become tourist attractions, other inviting techniques will have to be incorporated.
Auditorium/theatres where the artisans and professional designers can come to deliver their knowledge and share modern techniques, designs and problems will be provided. This sharing of knowledge shall help in producing better Art pieces
Water bodies or fountains will be given to not only lower the surrounding temperatures, but also to provide relaxing outdoor environment.
7 architectural program
The cultural complex based on saraiki culture & aim for designing is to give identity to the Saraiki culture. The complex will provide a platform which will exhibit distinctive character of Saraiki culture & will facilitate visitors with learning, entertainment and shopping. The aim for designing a cultural complex is that all the components of complex is designing in such a way that they will encourage the public interaction & produce the cultural iconic complex.
The architectural elements that will be incorporated in cultural complex will exhibit & revive saraiki culture & provide the platform for Festivals, Local art & craft exhibition & Art & craft shops.
The Architectural elements of Cultural Hub are:
Cultural heritage museum
Open air theatre
Craft bazar (exhibition included)
Auditorium + social spaces
7.1 Cultural heritage museum:
The museum will tell the glorious journey of the saraiki culture that from what civilization they belong & how they come in subcontinent & it will also tell the glorious journey from past to present. It will be the walk through corridor of History placed in a setting that absorbs the visitor in its splendour. The galleries of museum will tell the history in a story telling manner. The temporary exhibition galleries will incorporate annual & monthly bases Art & craft exhibition.
7.1.1 Hall of faden memories:
Arrival of in the subcontinent
Map of the area from where they live
Route map of Aryans arrival in subcontinent
Map of the Harappa civilization (the civilizations which are already present in this area)
Harappa urban planning
Aryans religion (sun temple Multan)
Arts & crafts
7.1.2 Hall of ancient dynasties:
This hall will exhibit the history of Saraiki culture & ancient dynasties that ruled in that region. Different empires & races ruled that area. Each empire has added their development & layer of culture in this region.
The name of ancient rulers is:
Time of Gautama Buddha
Raja Dahir (Bahaman) rule
Muhammad Bin Qasim rule (Arrival of Islam in subcontinent)
Ghaznavi, Mumluk & khilji rule
7.1.3 Hall of arts & crafts:
This hall will be the house of exotic, ethnic & rich arts & crafts of the Saraiki culture from its ruler & urban areas. The antique craft of jewellery, pottery, brass, embroidery & handmade textiles. The display will be colourful to attract visitors.
7.1.4 Hall of architecture:
The gallery will exhibit the traditional architecture art, rare & dying architectural skills & architectural elements of different architectural elements of different architectural style that was practiced in southern Punjab & provide educating experience to visitors. The architectural work will exhibit in a way that that artisans are working on them in a live environment through sculpture.
Models of important historic buildings
Blue tile work
Architectural elements of architectural styles prevailed on the land of southern Punjab
7.1.5 Hall of Sufism & shrines:
The gallery will portray the Sufi tradition of contemplation shrines, architecture, Sufi lore & Sufi practices in a dioramic display & exhibit Sufi literature. It will also show their struggle for preaching of Islam in that area.
7.1.6 Hall of literature & melody:
This gallery will portray the musical heritage & tradition of southern Punjab & will also display the musical instruments. Folk dance of southern Punjab like Luddi & Jhomar will also exhibit. The folk instruments like Tabla, Dhol, Tanpura, Matka or Ghara are famous. Poetry of famous saraiki poets like Khawja Fareed Ganj Shakr, Shakir Shuja abadi, Ahmad khan Tariq Dohra will be exhibited & will acknowledge visitors about Saraiki language.
Main reception building:
Spaces Area in sq ft
Entrance lobby 650
Waiting area 1000
Ticketing area 500
Toilet (3male + 3 female ) 375
Lecture room x 2 400 x2
Shops x 2 250 x 2
No of visitors 300 visitors per day
Spaces Area in sq. ft
Entrance hall 2000
Information desk 80-100
Waiting area + orientation area 1000
Things keeping room (store) 400
Toilet (3 male + 3 female) 374
Security office and Management office 350
Services storage and services ramp 10000
Hall of faded memories 1800
Hall of ancient dynasties 1800
Hall of arts & crafts 4500
Hall of architecture 3000
Hall of Sufism & shrines 1500
Hall of literature & melody 1500
Hall of temporary galleries 2000
Total area 44724
7.2 Open air theatre:
Open air theatre will host all the function related to folk dance & music & all the function of major festival of Saraiki culture.
Open air theatre requirements:
Seating capacity 100 people
Spaces Area in sq. ft
Entrance lobby 1000
Toilets (male + female) 374
VIP lounge 450
Back stage area
Rehearsal room x2 2000
Green room 450
Female changing & makeup room 600
Male changing & makeup room 600
Control room x2 350
Stage workshop & stage manager office 1000
Total area 9297
7.3 Craft bazar:
The craft bazar will give space to craftsman & artisans that they manufacture their things & exhibit for visitors.
The important craft of southern Punjab which I have chosen are:
1. Pottery & changair making(Palm leaf weaving)
2. Khusa making
3. Chunri making & block printing
4. Rally & khais making
7.3.1 Pottery making:
In Multan there is the expert of pottery making Muhammad Wajid . Pottery making is an old craft that has continued for generations in their family. This craft of clay turning into articles of utility and objects of art has a tradition in Multan spread over thousands of years. The most important factor contributing to the survival and growth of the potter’s craft is the variety of raw material available in Multan. The craft came to Multan from Iran and is still called kasha work, indicating the original home (Kashan) of the craftsmen who started large-scale tile making here.
The long list of articles produced includes;
The tools required by the potters are;
A rod for the circulation of wheel
Figure 7 1 Process flow of pottery making
7.3.2 Palm leaf weaving:
Palm Leaf weaving is done with the dried leaves of date-palm known as ‘Khajji’ locally. Date palm is considered to be the third major fruit of the country and abundantly grown in South Punjab. It is used to make various items such as baskets, ropes, hand fans, prayer mats etc. The colour range is still restricted to a few colours, yellow, green, red, shocking pink which is because these appear to be more popular colours. In the beginning colour was not used but the weave produced a variety of patterns.
Figure 7 2 Flow process of Palm leaf weaving
7.3.3 Khusa making:
Ustad Allah Buksh is busy in making Khussas in Multan. The craft made of leather for wearing is a part of great culture. It is said that this art came into existence after the invasion of Alexander the great. So in the same respect, the history of Multani Khussa is very old in which the goat skin is used. Ustad Allah Baksh told us that his ancestors have been associated with this craft for seven generations and he is making these Khussas for 80 Years.
7.3.4 Chunri making:
Chunri or the art of tie and dye is a famous craft of the Saraiki speaking region as well as Sind. Bahawalpur ranks high as a centre of Chunri making with the presence of villages like Abbass Nagar which have been preparing products for the market since ages. Multan also has a tradition of Chunri making but on the decline.
7.3.5 Block printing:
Printing on silk and synthetic cloth has been revived in Multan.
7.3.6 Ralli making:
The term Ralli derives from “rallana, which means to connect”. Ralli making is synonymous with the Cholistan desert, where it is widely practiced and most intricate although it is found in other parts of the region as well.
Different types of Ralli are:
Muhammad Zubair who is associated with the art of jewelry making. For centuries this art has continued in Multan as well as in Bahawalpur, Muhammad Zubair has also inherited this art & his family has been in jewellery making for four generations. He has also written more than 50 books on the designing of jewellery.
Ear rings, bundey,
Bali, malas, lockets
Necklaces and pendants
Kara, bangles, chooris
The tools are;
Figure 7 7 Flow process of Jewelry making Source: Author
Craft bazar requirements
Crafts Spaces Area sq.ft Total Area sq.ft
Open Area 300
Shop area x 5 400 x 5
Palm leaf weaving 2100
Tool rack 100
Color Rack 100
Open Space 200
Shop area x 4 400 x 4
Chunri making 2775
Tool Rack 100
Shop area x 5 400 x 5
Tool Rack 50
Sole Making 125
Upper Making 125
Shop area x 3 400 x 3
Block Printing 1700
Tool Rack 25
Printing Table 200
Shop area x 3 400 x 3
Ralli making 2525
Tool Rack 25
Shop area x 5 400 x 5
Jewellery making 1750
Tool Rack 100
Shop area x 3 400 x 3
Storage Material storage & Product Storage 5500
Wash Rooms Total Workers Quantity
50 5 25 125
Reference (TSS for Interior Design) 1 for 8 person
7.4 Auditorium & social space requirements:
For 150 persons
12 number of rows
Seats per row =15
Given auditorium area =20″ seats, 36″ back-to-back
Min. aisle = 3′-0-0″
Max. Aisle = 4′-6″
Spaces Area in sq. ft
Entrance lobby 600
Checking area 150
Seating (150 seats) 2500
Projection/ control room 300
Equipment storage 300
Rear projection room 400
Toilet (male + female) 374
Entrance lobby 500
Waiting area 400
Waiting room for poet 300
Raised platform 600
Floor seating (50 people) 900 + 30% circulation
Back stage 300
Public toilet (male + female) 190
7.5 Library requirements:
Spaces Area in sq. ft
Library space for 100 people
Information desk 50
Bag/equipment storage 200
Reading hall 3000
10,000 Book collection 1000
Staff work 300
Librarian office 150
Prayer room 100
Toilet (male + female) 190
Reference (TSS for building types)
7.6 Food court requirements:
Food Court Spaces Area Sq.ft Total Area sq.ft
Wet Storage 400
Dry Storage 400
Dish Washing 1000
Reference (TSS for Building Type)
700 18sq./seat 12600
Wash Rooms Total users Quantity
300 4 25/per 100
Reference (TSS for Interior Design) 6 for 150 Add 1 for each 40
7.7 Open spaces:
Spaces Area sq.ft
Open Land Hard & Soft Landscape
Reference MDA By-Laws ( 35% of Plot Size)
7.8 Administration requirements:
Spaces Area in sq. ft
Director office 300
PA office 100
Assistant director office 250
PA office 100
Finance manager office 250
Cashier office 150
HR manager office 250
Clerk’s office 200
Printing office 180
Record room 200
Administration officer x2
Director of interactive marketing 300
Security office 200
Conference room 600
Spaces Area in sq. ft
Loading dock 600
Receiving area 2000
Security office 250
Furniture storage & workshop 5000
Artifacts storage x2 6000
Preservation lab 3000
Storage for paintings 1500
Storage for art & craft 1500
Chief engineer office 150
Assistant engineer 120
Carpentry shop 150
Plumbing shop 150
Electrical shop 150
HVAC plant 6000
Garbage disposal 200
Sanitary controller 200
Staff lounge 450
Lockers & changing room 450
Curator of painting 200
Curator of arts & craft 200
Collection manager 200
Curatorial assistant 200
Chemist office 200
Preservation lab 1000
Parking Space Quantity Area sq.ft
Cars 1 car space for 1000sq.ft covered area
Covered = 147896 sq.ft
Area for 1 car with circulation= 250Sq.ft
Bikes 2 bikes
Area for 1 Bike Space = 48sq.ft
7.11 Open space:
Spaces Area sq.ft
Open Land Hard & Soft Landscape 68826
Reference MDA By-Laws ( 35% of Plot Size)
7.12 Total areas:
Covered Area(sq.ft) Parking Area(sq.ft) Open Area(sq.ft) Total Area(sq.ft)
147896 48750 68826 265472
65% covered Area & 35% open
After going search work and from the analysis and conclusion of my literature review, case studies and site analysis, my project design began to evolve. Cultural Hub is a place that introduces the interaction of people with culture & provides entertainment & education to the visitors. In today’s age it is vital to give the importance to culture to maintain our distinctive identity.
This complex would be the representation of Saraiki Culture. So I decided to design my building by merging modern and traditional architecture of Multan so that the building may be a landmark of their cultural heritage. I chose contemporary building style for complex by merging it with the traditional building style because culture evolves at every stage & the Complex show the evolution of the culture.
The concept behind the master planning is based on axis. The museum building is laid on main X-axis and Craft bazar is placed on Y-axis. Sculpture court and other cultural activity areas are designed in front of Museum building & it will act as an interactive space. The building is designed in contemporary architectural style & it shows the evolution of Saraiki culture.
The craft bazar will exhibit the traditional shopping of the region & facilitate the shopping in ethnic environment. The artisans work space is provided in semi covered area & visitors can enjoy the crafting of the products & they can also see the end product of these craft in exhibits. Visitors can buy these products from shops. These shops are designed on the style of Cholistan desert homes (jhuggi). Sitting is designed in front of craft bazar so that visitors can sit and enjoy the crafting.
8.1 Structure and Material
Prefab lightweight steel structure with Low-e glass value and poly N- iso is used for the construction of the building. The building’s perforated facad patterns allow natural ventilation and daylight to enter the building reducing the need for electric lighting.
Aside from being a new landmark, the cultural hub is also a model of energy-efficiency. Low-e glass helps control the temperature inside naturally. The aim of designing such structure is to reduce significantly the energy demand for theCultural Hub, provide comfort conditions and desirable environments through passive design strategies where appropriate, allowing energy to be used in an efficient way.
Aisha Bakhtawar thesis on artisan Village session2005-2010
Dawn news 16 december,2006
Cultural expression of southern Punjab by Sajda vandal
Historical background of Saraiki Language by Maqbool Hassan Gilani
Saraiki Ethnic identity by Rehana Saeed Hashmi and Gulshan Majeed
The problematic of regionalism: theoretical debate and the case of Multan region by Saleem-ud-deen and S.M.Awan
Cultural durability by Stefeno Pavarjni
Architecture and Identity – The Agha Khan Award of Architecture – Publisher: Birkhauser 2004
H.A. Rose, A Glossary Of The Tribes And Castes Of The Punjab And North-West Frontier Province, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1997
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